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Osteology

study of bones

Ligaments

hold bones together at joints

Tendons

attach muscles to bones

Functions of skeleton

support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, blood formation

Mineralization or calcification

hardening process of bone

Flat bones

protect soft organs, curved but wide and thin

Long bones

longer than wide, rigid levers acted upon muscles

Short bones

Equal in length and width, glide across each other in multiple directions

Irregular bones

elaborates shapes that do no fit into other categories

Periosteum

external sheath that covers bone except where there is articular cartilage

Endosteum

thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity

Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells

stem cells found in endosteum, periosteum, and in central canals

Osteoblasts

bone forming cells

Osteocytes

former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited

Lacunae

tiny cavities where osteocytes reside

Canaliculi

little channels that connect lacunae

Osteoclasts

bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface

Ossification or osteogenesis

the formation of bone

In the human fetus and infant, bone develops by two methods

Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification

Epiphyseal plate

region of transition from cartilage to bone

Metaphysis

the zone of transition facing the marrow cavity

Interstitial growth

bones increase in length

Appositional growth

bones increase in width throughout life

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