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heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

rooting reflex

reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek

piage's theory of development

sensorimotor, preoporational, concrete operational, formal operational

piaget sensorimotor

birth-age 2
no object perminence

piaget preoperational

age 2-7
theory of mind
no conservation
object perminance

piaget concrete operational

age 7-11
basic math ability
lack abstract reasoning ability (no algebra skills)
conservation

piaget formal operational

age 12-adulthood
abstract and hypothetical thought

authoritarian

strict rules
harsh discipline- no explanation

permissive

few rules
little discipline

authoritative

rules are reinforced w/ explanation
make exceptions

teratogen

chemicals/viruses that can cause birth defects
ex: fetal alcohol syndrome

kohlberg's theory of moral development

preconventional
conventional
postconventional

kholberg preconventional

before age 9
self interest, seek reward, avoid punishment

kholberg conventional

by early adolescence
care about others; maintaining oder
obey rules simply bc they are laws; no in depth reasoning

kholberg postconventional

not everyone reaches this stage
basic ethical principles
think about right and wrong
focus on moral concern

emerging adulthood

age 18-mid 20s
extended time to acheive complete independence
establish career

identity crisis

vonglivyd between different aspects of one's identity

absolute threshold

the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect 50% of the time

difference threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 201)

subliminal message

a stimulus that is presented below the threshold for awareness

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect

figure-ground perception

ability to discriminate between figure and its background

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

semicircle canals

structure used for sense of balance

vestibular sense

used for sense of balance

sweet salty sour bitter umami

basic taste sensations

blind spot

where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells

rod

visual receptor cell sensitive to dim light

cone

visual receptor cell sensitive to color

chemical sense

Can distinguish thousands of different odors and flavors. Identification begins at membrane receptors on sensory cells

precognition

knowledge of an event before it occurs

clairvoyance

apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses
perception of remote events

telepathy

apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions

visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

convergence

eyes turn toward each other more to see closer objects

retinal disparity

each eye receives a slightly different image

relative size

objects that are farther away appear smaller

texture gradient

distant objects appear more densely packed

linear perspective

lines appear to converge at a distance

cocktail party effect

ability to attend to only one voice among many

classical conditioning

conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
simple association between 2 stimuli
"If A, then B"

operant conditioning

conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response

gender roles

In the United States 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of

norms

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing

genetic predispositions

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to

fraternal twins who were raised apart

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are

mutations

Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?

schemas

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender

culture

By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of

evolutionary perspective

It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates

prenatal environments

Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.

collectivism

Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with

theory of mind

A child's realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of

secure attatchment

Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of

postconventional

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

memory capacities

Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their

earlier; later

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.

critical period

The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as

placenta

Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the

concept of conservation

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a

longitudinal

A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.

authoritarian

"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.

proximity

The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of

cerebellum

Receptor cells for the vestibular sense send messages to the

sensory adaptation

If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates

top down processing

Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others' behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of

linear perspective

Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue for depth perception known as

retinal disparity

The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for depth perception known as

precognition

Psychics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of

shape constancy

A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens, yet we still perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates

perceptual constancy

The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates

bandura

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

observational learning

If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates

fixed ratio

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

unconditional response

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a

biological predispositions

If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by

conditioned stimulus

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)

generalization

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates

spontaneous recovery

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates

negative reinforcement

Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of

classical conditioning

People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokemon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of

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