Study Guide

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13th Amendment

This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.

14th Amendment

This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.

15th Amendment

the right to vote shall not be denied based on race or color

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

Constitution

law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Dred Scott Decision

A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

Federalism

a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Jamestown

The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.

King George III

King George III, the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.

Laissez Faire

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Louisiana Purchase

..., The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Loyalists

..., American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Massachusetts Bay Colony

..., 1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

Missouri Compromise

..., The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Monopoly

..., exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices

Origin of Am. Political Parties

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Prairie Farming

..., crops on commercial grain farms are grown primarily for consumption by humans rather than by livestock. this production is mostly in regions that are too dry for mixed crops and livestock.

Radical Republican

..., one of the congressional republicans who wanted to destroy the political power of slaveholders and to give African Americans citizenship and the right to vote

Reconstruction

..., the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.

Reform Movement 1830-1850

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Robber Barons

..., Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price

Sherman Anti- Trust Act

..., This act banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals.

Southern succession

..., lincolns elections made the people believe that they had lost there voice in the government. They were scared that there entire way of life was going to change.This caused states to succeed from the Union.

Sovereign

..., ruler in a monarchy; ADJ: (of a country) independent and self-governing; having supreme power; supreme; excellent

Thomas Paine's Common Sense

1776- Paine argued for independence, directly attacking allegiance to the monarchy, refocusing hostility previously vented on Parliament. The pamphlet was published anonymously in Philadelphia. He proved himself the consummate Revolutionary rhetorician. The Common sense of the matter, it seemed, was that King George III bore the responsibility for the malevolence toward the colonist. Before Paine, few colonists thought Independence was an option.

How successful was Reconstruction?

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Explain the symbiotic relationship between the West and Industrializing East 1876-1900?

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