What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?
What are some examples of monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, and galactose
What is the dimer of a carbohydrate?
What is the polymer of a carbohydrate?
What are the monomers of a lipid?
fatty acid and glycerol
What are the polymers of a lipid?
phospholipid or triglyceride
What is unsaturated fat?
fat where there are less hydrogen atoms than the maximum number
What is saturated fat?
fat where all three fatty acid chains contain maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
What is the monomer of a protein?
What kind of bond is formed between amino acids?
What is the dimer of a protein?
What can cause denaturation in proteins?
unfavorable change in temperature, pH or some other quality
What is the purpose of enzymes?
to lower activation energy required to start reaction
What is a catalyst?
substance that lowers activation energy required to start reactions
What is a substrate?
reactants that are acted upon by enzymes to speed up reactions
How do substrates bind to enzymes?
substrates bind at an active site
What is the polymer of a protein?
What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
How are nucleotides joined together?
with covalent bonds
In DNA, how do the bases pair?
T and A, C and G
In RNA, how do the bases pair?
U and A, C and G
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
phosphate, nitrogen base and 5 carbon pentose (sugar)
Through what process are monomers bonded together?
Through what process are dimers and polymers broken down?
What does a hydroxyl group look like?
an OH bonded to something
What does a carbonyl group look like?
a carbon double bonded to an oxygen
What does a carboxyl group look like?
a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and singly bonded to OH
What does an amino group look like?
a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens
What do all organic compounds have?
they all have a carbon backbone
What is so great about carbon in the carbon backbone?
carbon has 4 valence electrons, allowing it to bond with 4 different atoms
What defines the functions and properties of an amino acid?
the R group
What is starch?
polysaccharide found only in plant cells
What is glycogen?
polysaccharide found only in animal cells
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
building organic molecules; makes rigid cell walls for plant cells
What are the functions of lipids?
stores energy, insulates and cushions organs
What are the functions of protein?
building blocks for structures such as muscles and used as long term energy storage
What are the functions of amino acids?
makes up DNA and RNA