Science Biochemistry Test 1

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biochemistry

What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?

monosaccharides

What are some examples of monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose, and galactose

What is the dimer of a carbohydrate?

disaccharide

What is the polymer of a carbohydrate?

polysaccharide

What are the monomers of a lipid?

fatty acid and glycerol

What are the polymers of a lipid?

phospholipid or triglyceride

What is unsaturated fat?

fat where there are less hydrogen atoms than the maximum number

What is saturated fat?

fat where all three fatty acid chains contain maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

What is the monomer of a protein?

amino acid

What kind of bond is formed between amino acids?

peptide bond

What is the dimer of a protein?

dipeptide

What can cause denaturation in proteins?

unfavorable change in temperature, pH or some other quality

What is the purpose of enzymes?

to lower activation energy required to start reaction

What is a catalyst?

substance that lowers activation energy required to start reactions

What is a substrate?

reactants that are acted upon by enzymes to speed up reactions

How do substrates bind to enzymes?

substrates bind at an active site

What is the polymer of a protein?

polypeptide chain

What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

nucleotides

How are nucleotides joined together?

with covalent bonds

In DNA, how do the bases pair?

T and A, C and G

In RNA, how do the bases pair?

U and A, C and G

What are the parts of a nucleotide?

phosphate, nitrogen base and 5 carbon pentose (sugar)

Through what process are monomers bonded together?

dehydration synthesis

Through what process are dimers and polymers broken down?

hydrolysis

What does a hydroxyl group look like?

an OH bonded to something

What does a carbonyl group look like?

a carbon double bonded to an oxygen

What does a carboxyl group look like?

a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and singly bonded to OH

What does an amino group look like?

a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens

What do all organic compounds have?

they all have a carbon backbone

What is so great about carbon in the carbon backbone?

carbon has 4 valence electrons, allowing it to bond with 4 different atoms

What defines the functions and properties of an amino acid?

the R group

What is starch?

polysaccharide found only in plant cells

What is glycogen?

polysaccharide found only in animal cells

What are the functions of carbohydrates?

building organic molecules; makes rigid cell walls for plant cells

What are the functions of lipids?

stores energy, insulates and cushions organs

What are the functions of protein?

building blocks for structures such as muscles and used as long term energy storage

What are the functions of amino acids?

makes up DNA and RNA

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