Biology Ch. 5&6

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Metabolism & Bacterial Growth and Culturing

metabolism

the sum of all the chemical processes carried out by living organisms

anabolism

requires energy to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones

anabolism example

growth, reproduction, repair

catabolism

releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones

catabolism example

digestion

autotroph

captures its own energy and uses carbon dioxide to synthesize organic molecules. makes its own food.

photoautotroph

captures energy from sunlight and uses carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates(energy). photosynthesizes.

photoautotroph example

cyanobacteria, algae, plants

chemoautotroph

uses energy from inorganic substances such as sulfides or nitrates and uses carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates(energy). does not photosynthesize.

chemoautotroph example

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

heterotroph

uses ready made organic molecules obtained from other organisms. take in food from outside source.

photoheterotroph

captures energy from light but still needs an additional energy source(organic molecules) present such as methanol to meet all energy requirements

photoheterotroph example

green non-sulfur bacteria

chemoheterotroph

obtains energy from breaking down organic molecules

chemoheterotroph example

humans, most bacteria, fungi, protozoa

glycolysis

metabolic pathway used by most autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms to break down glucose which is needed for energy. doesn't require oxygen but can occur when oxygen is present.

fermentation

metabolic process that keeps glycolysis going by further breaking down glucose when oxygen is not present. occurs after glycolysis and oxygen is not present.

product of glycolysis

pyruvic acid

types of fermentation

homolactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation

homolactic acid fermentation

pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, creating foods such as yogurt and cheese

alcoholic fermentation

pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol. yeast does this to make bread, wine, beer, etc.

respiration

aerobic metabolism. occurs when oxygen is present and further breaks down pyruvic acid created during glycolysis.

19x

the amount of energy released in respiration as compared to that of initial metabolism of glucose

glucose--->_______

pyruvic acid

pyruvic acid ---->with O2_______

aerobic metabolism

pyruvic acid --->without O2 _______

anaerobic metabolism

anaerobic metabolism --->______ or _____

homolactic acid fermentation and lactic acid or alcoholic fermentation and ethyl alcohol

microbial growth

an increase in the number of cells that occur by cell division, not by size increase

mother cell

the cell that doubles in size to divide itself into two

daughter cell

a cell created by a mother cell splitting in half

types of microbial cell division

binary fission or budding

binary fission

a cell duplicates all its components and then divides in half to form two cells. this is asexual reproduction.

budding

when a small new cell develops from the surface of an existing cell and separates from the parent cell.

example of a binary fission cell

bacteria

example of a budding cell

yeast

four phases of growth

lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, decline phase.

lag phase

organisms don't increase in number, but are metabolically active and grow in size.

log phase

organisms adapt to their medium and grow at an exponential or logarithmic rate. cell division occurs rapidly.

stationary phase

the rate of cells dividing slows to the rate of cells dying and the number of cells remains constant.

decline phase

the medium and environment becomes less supportive for cell growth and division. the number of live cells decrease at a logarithmic rate.

when cells dont completely separate in cell division

they form tetrads, chains, sarcinaes, or grape like clusters.

sarcinae

group of 8

generation time

the interval between cell divisions. can be 20 minutes to 20 hours.

colony

when cells divide exponentially, they form this group of descendants from the original cell.

the edges of a colony grow faster than the middle of a colony because

nutrients are less abundant in the middle

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