Week 7 Anthro Terms
|Accusative (like English)||In ________ languages, the subject is the same regardless of whether the verb is transitive or intransitive|
|Ergative||In _______ languages, the subject is different if the verb is transitive as opposed to intransitive|
|Speech Community|| - is a community of people who share a verbal repertoire and a set of rules and norms for communication and interpretation of speech.|
("Rules and norms" includes everything from intonation and vocabulary, to body positioning and eye contact)
|Communicative Competence|| -refers to what we know when we really know a language. |
- It means that we can recognize and use a broad range of registers, and that we know the meanings of different communicative practices used by most people in a given speech community.
|ethnography of speaking (or ethnography of communication)||the type of ethnography that focuses on describing features of different speech communities:|
-includes descriptions of explicit norms for communication
-details verbal, nonverbal and social expectations surrounding interaction
-focuses on particular contexts and types of speech events, and how language changes in different situations
|SPEAKING model|| Setting (physical surroundings)|
Participants (who does what?)
Ends (goals of interaction)
Acts sequence (order of events)
Key (cues that establish tone of event)
Norms (social norms for the event)
Genre (fairy tale; knock-knock joke)
|Miscommunication|| a misinterpretation of intended meaning; failure to achieve communication|
- occurs all the time within speech communities, but across speech communities miscommunication often occurs at regular points where rules and norms are different in the two communities
|Dialect (Linguistic Variety)||-a regionally or socially distinctive variety of a language, identified by a particular set of words (vocabulary) and grammatical structures, as well as a certain phonology.|
|Prestige Variety||-a dialect associated with mainstream social prestige - for example a dialect that sounds "educated" or "sophisticated"|
|Stigmatized Variety||a dialect associated with negative features, from a mainstream social perspective: e.g. "uneducated" "lower class"|
|Negative Prestige Variety|| - a dialectassociated with negative social value, but also carries a lot of prestige in certain social groups. |
Example: Male speakers of certain regional dialects (North End Boston) are often considered "extra-masculine" within their social group
|Language Attitudes|| -attitudes about language. |
Examples include: beautiful, ignorant, lazy, logical, clear, melodious, primitive, precise, passive, forceful etc.
|Communicative Practices|| - habitual language practices groups of people use to communicate with each other and to create and maintain distinct groups/identities |
Example: use of rising intonation in Southern dialects of English.
|Register||-a term that describes how language varies across situations. |
Being able to use a range of _______ is part of communicative competence
One way to think of _______ is as "ways of speaking"
**Examples: The way I speak to my friends; the way I speak to a very important person; the way I speak to a child...
|Interactional Styles||- the basic ways people organize their interactions with one another based on expectations for those interactions|
|Involvement Strategy||-express approval and emphasizes solidarity|
|Restraint Strategy||-emphasizes unwillingness to impose on others|
|Communities of Practice||A group of individuals who interact regularly, developing unique ways of doing things together|
"A _________ is an aggregate of people who come together around mutual engagement in an endeavor. Ways of doing things, ways of talking, beliefs, values, power relations - in short, practices - emerge in the course of this mutual endeavor." Eckert and McConnell-Ginet quoted in Ahearn, pg. 115