a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
a set of complex hierachical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. Bureacracies may be private organizations or governmental units.
civil service system
the system created by civil service laws by which many appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections
businesses established by congress to perform functions that can be provided by private businesses. (such as the United States Postal Service)
Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activists roles in partisan campaigns .This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particualr party,or campaining for a particualr canidate
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
independent executive agencies
governmental units that closely resemble a cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility (such as the Central Intelligence Agency) and are not part of any cabinet department.
independent regulatory commission
an agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy
working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
the system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
a quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act.
the firing of public-office holders of a defeated politcal party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party.