Structures and Functions of the Eye

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Rectus Muscle

Controls the movement of the eye

Sclera

White part of the eye, thick, tough, protects the eye. The transparent potion of it is known as the cornea

Retina

First internal layer of the eye, contains photoreceptors (rod and cone cells)

Rod Cell

Photoreceptor:
Less Abundant
More common in the periphery of the retina
Low definition
Used more in nighttime time vision
Used to see black/white

Cone Cells

Photoreceptor:
More abundant
Concentrated in the fovea centralis
High definition
Used in daytime vision
Used to see color

Choroid Layer

Layer in between the Sclera and Retina
Absorbs all light that does not directly hit a rod or cone cell

Fovea Centralis

Point in the retina (looks like a pinprick) in which cone cells are abundantly concentrated.
Modified end of the dendrites in the optic nerve concentrate here.

Optic Nerve

Axons of the cells in the fovia centralis meet here to form this nerve
Transmits information gathered by the eye to the brain.

Blood Vessels

Provide nutrients to the eyes various parts (excluding the cornea)

"Blind Spot"

Spot in which the optic nerve begins, their are no rod or cone cells in this location.
Brain compensates by covering it with an image based on the data it is receiving

Vitreous Humor

Gel like substance in the posterior chamber, gives structure to the eye and maintains its shape.

Cilary Muscle Bodies

Controls the shape of the lens
Makes the aqueous humor
Provides nutrients to the aqueous humor
Strength will deteriorate with age

Iris

Colored layer of the Eye
Muscle
Controls the amount of light let into the eye (size of the pupil)

Conjunctiva

External layer of the eye
Protects the eye from bacteria

Pupil

Basically a hole in the eye
Allows for light to enter the eye
Size is controlled by the Iris

Lens

Focuses light to the fovea centralis
Transparent

Aqueous Humor

Transparent liquid behind the cornea
Delivered nutrients to the cornea

Cornea

Transparent part of sclera (so you can see)
Begins the light focusing process
No blood vessels
Receives nutrients from the aqueous humor

Anterior Chamber

Chamber behind the cornea
Filled with aqueous humor

Ligaments

Help control the shape of the lens to focus light

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