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inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues

Congestive Heart Failure

waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine

Creatinine

increased excretion of urine

Diuresis

What prevents reabsorption of sodium and water by the kidneys. Excretes a large amount of urine.

Diuretic

An abnormal, difficult, or bad rhythm

Dysrhythmia

chemicals that form ions and conduct current when dissolved in water

Electrolyte

a group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in the damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision

Glaucoma

System that regulates its internal enviorment for stable conditions

Homeostasis

A increase of potassium in the bloodstream

Hyperkalemia

Condition which blood pressure is chronically elevated

Hypertension

Potassium concentration in blood is low

Hypokalemia

microscopic filtering unit that removes water and waste solutes

Nephron

Bumetanide (Bumex)

Loop Diuretics

(Ethacrynic acid) Edecrin

Loop Diuretics

(Lasix) Furosemide

Loop Diuretics

(Naturin) Bendroflumethiazide

Thiazide Diuretic

(Diuril SK-Chlorothiazide) Chlorothiazide

Thiazide Diuretic

(Esidrix, HydroDIURIL, Oretic) Hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazide Diuretic

(Midamor) Amiloride

Potassium-Sparring Diuretics

(Aldactone) Spironolactone

Postassium-Sparring Diuretics

(Dyrenium) Triamterene

Potassium-Sparring Diuretics

(Diamox) Acetazolamide

Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitors

(Osmitrol) mannitol

Osmotic Diuretic

What are the three chronic medical conditions of Diuretics?

Hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure, Glaucoma

What do diuretics eliminate from the body?

Sodium, Potassium, Calcium

Potassium levels that are too low or too high may cause what condition?

Dysrhythmias

Patients with hypokalemia may require administration of what?

Potassium

__-__ __ indicated when a condition requires rapid but temporary reduction in fluid

Short-term Diuretics

What is an example for using a short term diuretic?

IV administration during surgical procedures

Diuretics are used to reduce what two kinds of pressure and protects what?

Intracranial, Intraocular, kidney function

What is the procedure used to prevent accumulation of fluid due to inflammatory response to tissue manipulation

retinal detachment

Diuretics may be given to keep fluid flowing through the kidneys for what procedure.

Vascular aorta

Hypokalemia is reduced when diuretics are used for a ____ treatment

short-term

Diuertic that May cause delay or rescheduling of surgery

Long-term therapy

use of diurectics require insertion of indwelling urinary catheter in the patient before surgery.

Short-term

A urinary drainage bag with an accurate measure device is often used to __ ___ __ at regular intervals

record urinary output

What is the main function of the renal system?

Maintain homeostasis

How is homeostasis maintained?

Filtering blood, Removing exces water and solutes

Blood is brought to the nephron through afferent arteriole into the ___ ___

Bowman's capsule

Where does filtration occur?

Bowman's capsule

Filtration is the process of ___ fluids, and solutes through a membrane by ___.

forcing, pressure

The filtered blood returns to the circulatory system through ____ arteriole

efferent

The remaining fluid which contains substances present in blood except formed elements and most proteins undergoes ____ _______

tubular reabsorption

Where does tubular reabsorption take place?

Proximal convoluted tubule and Loop of Henle

The filtrate recieves which three materials?

Potassium, creatinine, hydrogens ions

Tubular secretion in the distal convoluted tubule eliminates ___ ___ and controls ___ __

Waste products, blood ph

Filtrate is emptied from the _____ into the renal pelvis to the ___ and __ and is excreted as __

Collecting ducts, ureter bladder, urine

Diuretics are classified by what?

Site of action, mechanism of altered solutes

Diuretics that are used to remove fluid arising from renal, hepatic or cardiac dysfunction and to treat acute pulmonary edema

Loop

Most common cardiac dysfunction requiring treatment with diuretics is ____

CHF

What diuretics work by decreasing reabsorption of sodium and chloride along the whole renal tubule.

Loop

This Diuretic exert potent effect because of site of action is so broad.

Loop

Bumex, Edecrin, Lasix what what kind of Diuretics

Loop

___ is the most commonly used in Loop Diuretics for intracranial pressure

Furosemide

This diuretic is used to treat essential hypertension and mild chronic edema

Thiazide

Diuretic that Works by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium and chloride in end of ascending loop of nehpron

Thiazide

(Esidrix, HydroDiuril, Oretic) hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazide

Low potency used to treat edema and hypertension to restore potassium levels

Potassium-sparring

Prevent reabsorption of sodium in distal convoluted tubues by altering membrane permeability

Potassium-sparring

Change in membrane permeability prevents ___ ___

potassium loss

Amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene

Potassium-Sparring

Adverse effects can include hyperkalemia

Potassium-Sparring

Diuretics used to treat mild acute closed-angle gluacoma and chronic open-angle gluacoma

Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors

Urine is not significantly impacted

Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors

aqueous humor in the eye, decrease production of aqueous humor lowering eye pressure

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Most common inhibitor is acetazolamide (Diamox)

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Diuretic used for Cataract patients after surgery to prevent pressure build up.

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

A Diuretic that is Highly potent, increases blood pressure and volume

Osmotic Diuretics

What diuretics are contraindicated in patients with hypertension and edema.

Osmotic Diuretics

what diuretic Prevents acute renal failure after cardiac surgery for intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure

Osmotic Diuretics

Which Diuretic is needed for Rapid reduction in intraocular pressure

Osmitrol Mannitol

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