nursing: disaster, bioterrorism & emergency preparedness

24 terms by mcostakis 

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disaster: definition

event of great magnitude that requires the response of people outside of the involved community

man made disasters

toxic spills, war, bioterrorism

internal disasters

within hospital/agency, bomb, fire, biological agent

JCAHO

need to change from hospital focused disaster preparedness to community disaster preparedness

CDC (2)

1. health alert network = increased the capacity of state & local health agencies to detect & communicate health threats
2. worked w/pharmaceutical companies to stockpile drugs regionally for manmade disaster outbreaks

disaster levels (3)

Level I = local small natural disasters (auto accidents, house fires)
Level II = regional response needed (tornadoes, building collapse, train derailment)
Level III = federal response is needed (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis)

weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (5)

1. chemical
2. biological
3. radiological
4. nuclear
5. explosive

bioterrorism (3)

1. deliberate spread of pathogenic organisms to community
2. three groups of biological weapons A, B, C
3. Group A = most deadly agents (anthrax, plaque, small pox, botulism, tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers)

strategic national stockpile (3)

1. states request a "push pack" delivered w/in 12 hours
2. antibiotics, chemical antidotes, antitoxins
3. airways, medical equipment

other resources (3)

1. ESAR-VHP: emergency system for advance registration of volunteer health professionals
2. medical reserve corps
3. DMAT teams = Disaster medical assistance teams

chemical terrorism: definition, types & nurses response (4)

1. deliberate release of chemicals to cause mass destruction
2. enclosed space (subway, mall, sporting arena) these agents react rapidly
3. immediate decontamination at the site before transporting
4. choking agents, nerve agents, chlorine gas, phosgene gas

nuclear terrorism: definition, types & nurses response (4)

1. intentional dispersal of radioactive materials to cause injury or death
2. radiation dispersal device (dirty bomb)
3. attack on a nuclear power plant/nuclear weapons depot
4. nursing: decontamination, wear a radiation detection device, treat radiation burns, bone marrow suppression

mass trauma terrorism: types (5)

1. bombs & explosives: proximity= severity of injuries & mortality rates. BLI= blast lung injury need ICU care
2. massive fires
3. using commercial airlines as bombs
4. massive power outages
5. attacking transportation system

pandemics (2)

1. april 2009 flu epidemic in US (1st in 40 years)
2. flu vaccinations are mandated in most hospitals for nurses

personal/family/pet safety (3)

1. planning for family safety in advance so you can care for patients. be prepared to work long hours
2. identify designated place for your family to go if there is a disaster
3. FEMA: citizens guide to emergency preparedness. to prepare a disaster kit for home

disaster planning (5)

1. 2 practice disaster drills a year
2. nurses must be prepare to evacuate if necessary & be able to communicate to culturally diverse populations (deaf, ESL, etc)
3. hospitals must have a list all medical personnel in community
4. hospitals must have a plan to provide up to 5 days of care without federal support/staff
5. flexibility & readiness to pitch in are key components

mental health aspects (4)

1. helplessness, fear, depression, grief, nausea & vomiting, sleep pattern disturbances, panic, anger & horror
2. talk calm, validate their experiences, normalize what is happening, try relaxation techniques, reassurance can work
3. 1 in 3 disaster victims have acute stress disorder or PST disorder
4. for every 1 physical casualty there are 4-20 psychological victims

nurses self care (3)

1. decreased sleep, exhaustion, exposure to contaminated patients & toxin, fearful, depressed
2. get counseling asap
3. help coworkers with their reactions to the trauma

disaster Level I

local small natural disasters (auto accidents, house fires)

disaster Level II

regional response needed (tornadoes, building collapse, train derailment)

disaster Level III

federal response is needed (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis)

Resource: ESAR-VHP

emergency system for advance registration of volunteer health professionals

Resource: MRC

medical reserve corps

Resource: DMAT teams

Disaster medical assistance teams

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