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What is the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex called?

Gender stratification.

While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.

Biological

Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

Women are discriminated against because of their psychical characteristics

What "wave" of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women's pay to an antiviolence campaign?

The second wave

Based the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?

Among college graduates

Which statement best describes how feminists view sexual harassment?

it is based on the structural problems embedded in society

What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?

the glass ceiling

Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims?

Men outnumber women as both victims and killers

What is the age range of women most likely to be victims of rape?

16-19

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguishes it from another group?

Race

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

Ethnicity

In society, what is the group called with the greatest power, privileges, and social status?

Dominant Root

According to Adorno, a[n] ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.

authoritarian personality

When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

forced assimilation

Slavery and apartheid are both examples of how a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?

internal colonialism

In American history who were the "white ethnics"?

immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differ from the original white Anglo-Saxon Protestants

Of all ethnic groups, in which one are children most likely to grow up with two parents and the least likely to be born to a single mother?

Asian American

The group often referred to as the "invisible minority" is ________.

Native American

The systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity is called ________.

Genocide

As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?

One race is superior to another and pure races exist

Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.

attitudes, actions

The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called __.

Jim Crow Law

Sociologically, "what is family?"

2 or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption

Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from other kin?

Nuclear Family

Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?

It will decrease

Among married couples, who is likely to care for preschoolers when both parents work outside the home?

Organized Childcare Facilities

The group with the highest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ________ and the group with the lowest percentage of one parent families with a female head of household is ________.

African Americans/Asian Americans

In which families would elders play the most active role in rearing their grandchildren?

Native Americans

Sociologically, what is a blended family?

The husband or wife bringing a child into the new family from a prior relationship

How has the rate of cohabitation changed over the past 30 years?

It has risen 10 fold

What are the percentage odds that a couple married today will still be married a year from now?

98%

What is the main difference between cohabitation and marriage?

There is a greater degree of financial and emotional commitment in marriage.

How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?

Both the bride and groom than at any other time.

Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?

The incest taboo facilities the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.

John was adopted as an infant and although he knows this, has always considered the Smiths' his "real" family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?

His family of orientation

What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?

Beliefs, practices, and moral community

What are the two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the textbook?

Religious persecution and war on terrorism

What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God?

Religious Experience

Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.

Religion is the opinion of the pople

What does the "spirit of capitalism" refer to as proposed by Max Weber?

New approach to work and money that emphasizes investiment to make profit

What was the fundamental difference between Judaism and all other religions that preceded it?

Judaism is based on monotheism

What is the world's largest religion, boasting two billion members?

Christianity

Islam today is divided between two groups, one conservative and one liberal. Which of these two factions tends to be more liberal and accepting of social change?

Sunni

In Hinduism, one of the central beliefs is karma, which means ________.

Spiritual Progress

Which phrase best summarizes the "Confucian Golden Rule"?

Treat subordinate as you would want to be treated by superiors

In Buddhism, what do the "four noble truths" emphasize?

Self denial and compassion

A religious organization is referred to as a[n] ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

ecclesim

With 51 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?

Roman Catholic

What is the process by which spiritual concerns are replaced by worldly concerns?

Secularization

At one time Methodists prohibited members from playing cards, dancing, and going to movies. Since then these prohibitions have been dismantled. What is this shifting of focus from spiritual matters to worldly matters called?

Secularization of Religion

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