An agent that binds to receptors and enhances or mimics the effect of a natural neurotransmitter.
Type of neurotransmitter receptor that contains a neurotransmitter binding site but lacks an ion channel as part of its structure.
SSRls (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Drugs that provide relief from some forms of depression.
Change in membrane voltage as ions flow through opened channels.
EPSP (Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential)
Depolarizing postsynaptic potential.
Allow communication over long distances within the body.
Concentration (chemical) difference plus an electrical difference which allow specific ions to move across the plasma membrane.
Include an amino acid group and a catechol ring; synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine.
Voltage Gated Channel
Opens in response to a change in membrane potential (voltage)
Conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)
Mode of travel which graded potentials die out as they spread along the membrane.
Leak Ion Channel
Gates which randomly alternate between open and closed positions.
Caused by high level of glutamate in the interstitial fluid of the CNS.
Contain only sensory axons; conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and internal organs into the CNS.
Smallest diameter axons; unmyelinated; longest absolute refractory period.
IPSP (Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential)
Hyperpolarizing Postsynaptic Potential.
Nerve cell that carries a nerve impulse toward a synapse.
Cell that carries a nerve impulse away from a synapse or an effector cell that responds to the impulse at the synapse.
Process by which graded potentials add together.
Summation of postsynaptic potentials in response to stimuli that occur at the same location in the membrane of the postsynaptic cell but at different times.
Small deviation from the membrane potential that makes the membrane either more polarized or less polarized.
Type of neurotransmitter receptor that contains a neurotransmitter binding site and an ion channel.
Local anesthetic given as a long hollow needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes.
An action potential occurs in the membrane of the axon of a neuron when depolarization reaches a certain level.
An action potential is generated in response to a threshold stimulus but does not form when there is a subthreshold stimulus.
The period of time after an action potential in an excited cell cannot generate another action potential in response to a normal threshold stimulus.
Anterior Gray Horn
Contain somatic motor nuclei.
Space of 20-50 mm filled with interstitial fluid which separate chemical synapses.
Drugs that block pain and other somatic sensations.
Special mode of action potential propagation that occurs along myelinated axon.
An agent that binds to and blocks neurotransmitter receptors.
Important excitatory neurotransmitter secreted in the brain, spinal cord, adrenal glands, and nerves to the penis; contains single N atoms.
Permits one presynaptic neuron to influence several postsynaptic neurons at the same time.
Several presynaptic neurons synapse with a single postsynaptic neuron.
Summation of post-synaptic potentials in response to stimuli that occur at different locations in the membrane of a postsynaptic cell at the same time.
When the response makes the membrane more polarized.
Largest diameter axons; myelinated; brief absolute refractory period, conduct nerve impulses.
Posterior Gray Horns
Contains cell bodies and axons of interneurons as well as axons of incoming sensory neurons.
The capability to change based on experience.
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)
found only in the CNS; most common inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Amino acid which is a neurotransmitter in the CNS.
Best-studied neurotransmitter which is released by many PNS neurons and some CNS neurons.
When the response makes a membrane less polarized.
Ligand Gated Channel
Opens and closes in response to the binding of a chemical stimulus.