Collections of specialized cells and products, perform limited number of functions
tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs
Bone, Tendon, Ligament, Cartilage, provide support, fill in spaces, store energy
skeletal, cardiac, smooth, allows movement
conducts electrical impulses, carries information
Exposed surface of epithelia
Functions of Epithelia
Provide protection, control permeability, provides sensation, produce secretions
To surface of epithelium
Release into surrounding tissue fluid and blood
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM's), transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton filaments, intracellular cement (protein, and polysacharide mixture)
Bilayer's connected by interlocking proteins, Adhesion belt (near tight junctions, encircle cells binding them to neighbors, connect to cytoskeleton. PREVENT PASSAGE OF WATER AND SOLUTES
Allow communication,(embedded membrane proteins with holes), connexons allow small molecules to pass through them. Smooth and cardiac muscle tissue
Abundant between cells in superficial layers of skin. Intracellular cement, CAM's, proteins connect with intermediate filaments, spot desmosomes, cell to cell, semidesmosomes, cell to basement membrane
Active and passive transport of molecules, increases surface area
Beat in coordiated fashion, move materials across a surface
connects epithelia to underlying tissue, no cells, hemidesmosomes connect epithelia, resists distortion, acts as barrier
Single layer of cells covering basement membrane
several layers of cells, not all connected to basement membrane, more protection. Surface of skin, lining of mouth
Thin, flat cell
Hexagonal boxes, neat rows
Hexagonal, but taller and thinner, rectangles, nuclei crowded close to basement membrane
Released by secretory vesicles by exocytosis, mucus
top of cell sheds, full of vesicles, cell regrows after break
Entire Cell becomes packed with secretions and bursts, cell dies
Surrounds cells, contains ground substance and extracellular protein fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Dense, Loose, skin, fatty tissue, tendons, ligaments. Syrupy ground substance.
Fluid Connective Tissues
Blood, Lymph. watery ground substance.
Supporting Connective Tissues
cartilage, bone. Dense ground substance, fibrous matrix of bone
Produce connective tissue fibers and ground substance. Permanent residence, most abundant cells.
Phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Release chemicals mobilizing immune system. Throughout matrix. Fixed macrophages released during infection.
Adipocyte, permanent resident, large droplet of lipid, nucleus pushed to side.
Respond to local injury, divide to produce daughter cells, differentiate into fibroblast, macrophages, and other cells
released after injury or infection, cells rupture, packed with cytoplasm with vesicles packed with histamine and heprin (dilute blood)
Antibody producing cells
produces antibodies that destroy invading micro-organisms or foreign substances
long, straight, unbranched, strong flexible
Contain elastin (protein), branched and wavy, stretchy
Honeycomb shape, thinner than collagen
Avascular, Matrix, Chondrocytes
Live in Lacunae, obtain nutrients, eliminate waste via diffusion, limited repair possibilities
covers and separates structures of cartilage from surrounding tissues, inner cellular layer, fibrous layer
Most common, closely packed collagen fibers, connects ribs to sternum, supports trachea, covers bone surface in joints
Numerous elastic fibers, flexible. Ear, epiglottis, airway to ear
Little ground substance, matrix full of collagen fibers, resist compression, absorb shock, prevent bone to bone contact, knee, vertebrae, between pubic bones
Cell of bone, sit within lacume (matrix)
Branching network with bony canals
Covering that surrounds bone, outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer
Lines cavities, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract, lined by simple epithelial
Lines sealed internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity, parietal(lines inner surface of cavity, covers outer surface of cavity), and visceral. Simple epithelium supported by loose connective tissue. Minimizes friction.
Lines pleural cavities, covers lungs
lines peritoneal cavity covers surface of enclosed organs, liver, stomach
Lines the pericardial cavity, covers heart
Lines fibrous capsule that surrounds freely movable joints, hyaline cartilage separated by synovial fluid. Loose connective tissue.
voluntary movement, striated voluntary muscle
in heart, circulates blood, maintains blood pressure
found in walls of blood vessels, digestic, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs
Brain and spinal cord, conduct chemical impulses in body,
Communicate through electrical events effecting the plasma membrane, longest cell in body, receive and carry information in body. axon- carry dendrite-receive
Provide physical support for neural tissue, maintains chemical composition, provide nutrients to neurons, defend the tissue from infection
speeds up process of removal of waste products and toxins. mast cells produce histamine and heparin.
Major Functions of Integument
Protection, synthesis and storage of nutrients, temp. maintenance, sensory reception, excretion and secretion
stratified epithelium, thick skin- 5 layers, thin skin- 4 layers.
deepest layer, cells firmly attached by hemidesmosome. Large stem cells, replace cells in upper layers
synthisize melanin, yellow-brown pigment
adds to thickness of epithelium, cells may still divide (spiny layer)
cells no longer divide, begin to produce large amounts of keratin (grainy layer)
protein, durable water resistant
Only thick skin, flattened cells, densely packed with keratin
Outer layer of dermis, 15-30 layers of flattened dead epithelial cells, keratin, connected via desmosomes
contains nutrients for the epidermis, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers
peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves. Surrounded by epithelial stem cells
portion that anchors hair to the skin
Visible part, 3 layers of keratinized cells
surrounded with connective tissue sheath and wall, shingle like layer of cells, hard keratin
under cuticle, thick layers of hard keratin
core, flexible soft keratin
Holocrine glands, arrector pilli forces out secretion, sebum-oily lipid secretion
Nail, horn, hoof
4 steps in repair to injury
1. mast cells trigger inflammatory response
2. scab formed, clotting, migratory epithelium, macrophages, fibroblasts, granulation tissue
3. scar tissue formed
4. scab sheds, epidermis complete
Skeletal System Functions
supporting weight. stores minerals: phosphorus, calcium. blood cell production (yellow, red). protection. leverage.
immature bone cells
secrete acid and protein digesting enzymes (break down)
mature bone cells
Femur, Humerus. Longer than wide
Carpal, tarsal. approx. same length and width
where the oseocytes sit in the osteon
narrow sheets of calcified matrix. osteon rings.
small channels through the matrix. connect lacunae. osetocytes travel through
how osteons communicate. carry blood vessles into bone and marow
no osteons, lamallae form rods, spaces between contain red bone marrow. stresses come from many directions.
central shaft of bone
ends of bone
hard bone, on outside of bones except joints. stresses come from limited range of directions
Red Bone Marrow
outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer. attaches fibers and ligaments to bone. bone growth and repair.
cellular layer of periosteum
red bone marrow
red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells arise here. mainly in immature bone.
1. chondrocytes at center of cartilage enlarge, chondrocytes die as matrix calcifies. 2. newly made osteoblasts cover the cartilage in a thin layer of bone. 3. blood vessels penetrate cartilage, osteoblasts for spongy bone, center is primary center of ossification. 4. bone enlarges, osteoclasts for marrow cavity, new cartilage forms. 5. blood vessels are in epiphysis, are filled with spongy bone, new ossification centers form at ends of bone.
secreted by C cells in thyroid. decreases calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing calcium secretion in kidneys
produced in parathyroid glands. increases calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts, increasing interstitial absorbtion of calcium, decreases calcium excretion in kidneys
projects through the skin
fracture that breaks across through long axis of bone.
twisting stresses along length of bone
occur in young animals
two bones articulate
two or more bones meet
articulation by fibrous tissue, little or no movement. sutured. skull bones.
articulation united by fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, slightly movable joints. vertebral discs
articulated by synovial joint capsule. freely movable joints.
immovable joint. fibrous or cartilaginous connection. skull bones, teeth.
slightly movable joint
freely movable joint
Synovial Joint Components
Joint cavity, articular cartilage(hyaline), joint capsule (synovial membrane, fibrous capsule) ligaments, busa (small sac) helps with cushioning
reduces angle between two bones
increases angle between two bones
dorsal and ventral flexion
bending the spine
movement around the long axis
all movements, shoulder joint
moving toward median or plane
moving away from the median plane
two surfaces slide past each other, between carpal bones.
allowing movement at right angles
rotation around longitudinal axis of bone
movement in two planes
articular surface concave in one and convex in the other
ball and socket
universal movement. shoulder bone
sheep. wavy, fine
face hairs, whiskers
stiff sensory hairs