Founder of the Archaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 BCE, he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs of subject peoples
The people of the Persian empire, which brought together, in Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northwest Africa, peoples and cultural systems that had little direct contact previously, thereby stimulating new cultural syntheses. Spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European language family.
What the Persian rulers were called. They were called this because they traced their lineage back to an ancestor named Archaemenes.
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521 - 486 BCE). He crushed the wide-spread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of persepolis, and expanded Persian control in the east (Pakistan) and west (Northern Greece)
The governor of a province in the Archaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. ______ in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.
Cyrus' son and the second ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 530-522 BCE). Set his sights on Egypt, the last of the great ancient kingdoms of the Middle East. Depicted by Greek sources as a cruel and impious madman, but contemporary documents from Egypt show him operating in the same practical vein as his father, cultivating local priests and notables and respecting native traditions.
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland. It is believed that the New Year's festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations, weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried in cliff-tombs nearby.
Darius' son, who ruler after Darius and completed the building of Persepolis
The chief deity of the religion known as Zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Archaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces beforep revailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature
The period of time for the Greeks that followed after the destruction of the Mycenaean palace-states; lasted for several centuries (ca. 1150-800 BCE), a time of depopulation, poverty, and backwardness that left few traces in the archaeological record
These peoples ended the isolation of Greece in 800 BCE, when their ships began to visit the Aegan, inaugurating what scholars term the "Archaic" period of Greek history (ca. 800-480 BCE); Used 22 symbols to represent the consonants in their language, leaving the vowel sounds to be inferred by the reader; Had the first true alphabet
The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center, and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. Of the hundreds of city-states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by Greeks, some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and Assembly.
Greek term meaning "Top of the city"; was often centered on a hilltp and offered refuge in an emergency
Greek term meaning "gathering place"; an open area where citizens came together to ratify decisions of their leaders or to assemble with their weapons before military ventures
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. ______ armies - militias composed of middle-and-upper-class citizens supplying their own equiptment - were for centuries superior to all other military forces
The term Greeks used to distinguish themselves from the barbaroi "barbarians".
The term the Greeks used to describe someone who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community. __________ appeared in many Greek city-states in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, often taking advantage of the disaffection of the emerging middle class and, by weakening the old elite, unwittingly contributing to the evolution of democracy
System of government in which all "citizens" (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, priveledges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE
Author of the Iliad and Odyssey
A gift given to a deity, often with the aim of creating a relationship, gaining favor, and obligating the god to provide some benefit to the person doing the activity, sometimes in order to sustain the deity and thereby guarentee the continuing vitality of the natural world
A soldier and poet living in the first half of the 7th century BCE, an example of how poetry began challenging traditional values and expressing personal views
An early philsopher of the 6th century BCE; called into question the kind of gods Homer had popularized
The father of history; Heir to the technique of "historia" (investigation/research) developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents and chronicled the wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing
5th century BCE Athenian historian; Remarked that in his day, Sparta appeared to be little more than a large village and that no future observer of the ruins of the site would be able to guess its power
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war
State-owned serfs, the most abused and exploited population on the Greek mainland
The southernmost parts of the Greek mainland, where the Spartans lived
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian revolt (499-494 BCE), through Darius' punitive expedition that failed at Marathon (490 BCE) and the defeat of Xerxes' massive invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League (480-479 BCE). This first major setback for Persian arma launched the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity. Herodotus chronicles these events in the first "history" in the Western tradition
One of the two mainland states of Greece that had aided in the Ionian rebels (the other being Athens). Darius dispatched a force to punish this state and Athens in 490 BCE.
Greek and Phoenician warship of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in 2 vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 BCE) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian State; did not write anything down
Athenian philosopher (ca. 428-347 BCE) One of Socrates' disciples, who regarded Socrates' execution as a martyrdom and withdrew from public life to dedicate himself to the philosophical pursuit of knowledge and truth; wrote some of his teachings in oral form, but not everything
Athenian philosopher (ca. 384-322 BCE), came to study at Plato's Academy, the tutor of Alexander the Great, came from Stagira; collected and categorized a vast array of knowledge
A protracted (431-404 BCE) and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support
Leader of a northern Greek kingdom known as Macedonia (r. 359-336 BCE) and transformed his kingdom into a premier military power in the Greek world by improving the army, and began a period of conquest
King of Macedonia in northern Greece (356-323 BCE), son of Philip II. Between 334 and 323 BCE, he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.
The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries (323-30 BCE). From the magnificent capital at Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, they largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. it contained the famous Library and the Museum, a center for leading scientific and literary figures. Its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
The period from 507-31 BCE during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic, this group effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empre. Under their leadership, Rome conquered an empire of unprecedented extent in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Officials of the Roman Republic who were drawn from the nonelite classes and who could veto or block actions of the Assembly or officials that threatened the interests of the lower orders
Roman term meaning "Peace of the gods". Romans labored to maintain this
Gaius Julius Caesar
Rome's most brilliant general between 59 and 51 BCE, brought Rome's first territorial acquisitions in Europe's heartland; The last emperor of the Roman Republic, executed by Brutus and other members of the Senate
Roman term meaning "broad estates" or ranches
A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries CE, based on the ambiguous title princept ("first citizen") adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31 BCE and 14 CE, he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire
In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senetorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counter-balance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the _________ to staff the imperial civil service
A Roman term meaning "Roman Peace", was the safety and stability guarenteed by Roman might in the first two centuries CE.
The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces. Indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of the political and economic advantages that it brought, as well as the allure of Roman success
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers, he became the central figure in Christianity, a belief system that developed in the centuries after his death
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. Taking advantage of his Hellenized background and Roman citizenship, he traveled throughout Syria-Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece, preaching the new religion and establishing churches. Finding his great success among pagans ("gentiles"), he began the process by which Christianity separated from Judaism
A conduit, either elevated or underground, that used gravity to carry water from a source to a location - usually a city- that needed it. The Romans built many ___________ in a period of substantial urbanization
Historians' term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century CE, such as frequent change in ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy. After 284 CE, Diocletian restored order by making fundamental changes
A ruler of the Roman empire during the Third-Century Crisis - pulled the empire back from the brink of disaster. Was a commoner by birth, rose through the ranks of the army, and gained power in 284. Made many radical reforms that saved the Roman state by transforming it
Roman emperor (r. 312 - 337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capitla to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion
A strait leading from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea, where Constantine placed the imperial capital of Byzantium
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 BCE). The ____ ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and ruthlessly marshaled subjects for military and construction projects, engendering hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death. The ________ framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han empire.
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 BCE). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life-size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated
A term used to esignate the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 202 BCE to 220 CE
The Legalist prime minister under Shi Huangdi; convinced Shi Huangdi that the scholars (primarily Confucian rivals of the Legalists) were subverting the goals of the regime.
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these "barbarians", as they called them, and finally succeeded in dispersing the _______ in the first century CE.
The throne name of Liu Bang, one of the rebel leaders who brought down the Qin and founded the Han dynasty in 202 BCE
Chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor Wu. He composed a monumental history of China from its legendary origins to his own time and is regarded as the Chinese "father of history"
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Qina nd early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han empire
In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. Respected for their education and expertise, these officials became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past. The term _______ also denotes the class of land-holding families in England below the aristocracy
An ambitious official who seized power from 9-23 CE, which was a break in the long sequence of Han rulers. He implemented major reforms to address serious economic problems and to cement his popularity with the common people. However,a cataclysmic flood changed the course of the Yellow River and caused a large number of deaths and economic losses, which led to an uprising and his death.
The most renowned Indian sacred text, which is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling land-masses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year
Early Indian sacred "knowledge" - the literal meaning of the term - long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. These religious texts, including the thousand poetic hymns to various deities contained in the Rig Veda, are our main source of information about the Vedic period (ca. 1500 - 500 BCE)
An Indian term meaning "color" The four major social divisions, or classes of the caste system, which are of great importance in Indian history
Top class of the social heirarchy of India, comprosing of priests and scholars
Second from the top class of the social heirarchy of India, comprising of warriors and officials
Third from the top class of the social heirarchy of India, comprising of merchants, artisans, and the landowners
Bottom class of the social heirarchy of India, comprising of peasants and laborers
An Indian term for "slave"
Within the system of varna, there are many _____, regional groups of people who have a common occupational sphere and who marry, eat, and generally interact with other members of their group
The hindu concept of the spirit's "liberation" from the endless cycle of rebirths. There are various avenues - such as physical discipline, meditation, and acts of devotion to the gods - by which the spirit can distance itself from desire for the things of this world and be merged with the divine force that animates the universe
A belief system that emphasizes the holiness of the life force animating all living creatures; followers practice strict nonviolence, extreme asceticism and nudity, eat only what they are given by others, and eventually starve themselves to death
The lifestyle Buddha decided to follow, a life of moderation, where he would not live extremely, practicing asceticism, nor would he live in luxury
Large earthen mounds symbolizing the universe, erected by worshipers over the relics of the Buddha
Men and women who had achieved enlightenment through Buddhist methods and were on the threshold of nirvana, but chose to be reborn into mortal bodies to help others along the path to salvation
Indian term for "incarnations"
A common form of worship that involves service to the deity, which can take the form of bathing, clothing, or feeding the statue
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 BCE, and survived until 184 BCE. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley, it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 273-232 BCE). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing
The Kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Arya north. They produced epics, poetry, and performance arts. Elements of ______ religious beliefs were merged into the Hindu synthesis
A powerful Indian state based like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture
A ritual that took place in India where a widow was expected to cremate herself on her husband's funeral pyre, was seen as a way of keeping a woman "pure".
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries CE. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 BCE and 226 CE.
Device for securing a horseman's feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of _________ was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century CE
The veiled, blue-robed people of the highlands in southern Algeria, Niger, and Mali
Belt south of Sahara; literally "coastland" in Arabic
Treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Living on the steppes promotes the breeding of horses and the development of military skills that were essential to the rise of the Mongol Empire
Historians' term for a literate, well-institutionalized complex of religious and social beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse societies over a broad geographical area
Historians' term for a localized, usually nonliterate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society, often in conjunction with a "great tradition"
Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language
East African high-land nation lying east of the Nile River