Chapter 5: Lipids, Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols

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lipid

family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents, but not water; 3 main classes

cholesterol

sterol; made in body for variety of purposes

fats

lipids that are solid at room temperature

oils

lipids that are liquid at room temperature

cardiovascular disease

disease of the heart and blood vessels

triglycerides

class of lipids that is chief form of fat in foods and in the body; 3 units of fatty acids and 1 unit of glycerol

phospholipids

class of lipids that are similar to triglycerides but each has a phosphorus-containing acid in place of one of the fatty acids; present in all cell membranes

lecithin

phospholipid manufactured by the liver; major constituent of cell membrane

sterols

class of lipids that have structure similar to cholesterol

essential fatty acids

fatty acids that the body needs but can't make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs

satiety

feeling of fullness or satisfaction that people experience after meals

fatty acids

organic acids composed of carbon chains of various lengths; has an acid end and hydrogens attached to all of the carbon atoms on the chain

glycerol

organic compound, 3 carbons long, serves as backbone of triglycerides

saturated fatty acid

fatty acid carrying maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

point of unsaturation

site in a molecule where bonding is such that additional hydrogen atoms can easily be attached

unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid that lacks some hydrogen atoms and has one or more points of unsaturation

monounsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid containing one point of unsaturation

polyunsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid with 2 or more points of unsaturation

saturated fats

triglycerides in which most of fatty acids are saturated

trans fats

fats that contain any number of unusual fatty acids formed during processing

monounsaturated fats

triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have one point of unsaturation

polyunsaturated fats

triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have two or more points of unsaturation

emulsifier

substance that mixes with both fat and water and permanently disperses the fat in water, forming an emulsion

emulsification

process of mixing lipid with water by adding an emulsifier

bile

emulsifier made by the liver from cholesterol and stored in gallbladder; emulsifies fats so that enzymes in watery fluids may contact it and split fatty acids from their glycerol for absorption

monoglycerides

products of digestion of lipids; consist of glycerol molecules with one fatty acid attached

lipoproteins

transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph

chylomicrons

lipoproteins formed when lipids from a meal are combined with carrier proteins in cells of intestinal lining; transport food fats through the watery body fluids to liver and other tissues

very-low-density lipoproteins

lipoproteins that transport triglycerides and other lipids from liver to various tissues in body

low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

lipoproteins that transport lipids from liver to other tissues; contain large proportion of cholesterol

high-density lipoproteins (HDL)

lipoproteins that return cholesterol from tissues to liver for dismantling and disposal; contain large proportion of protein

inflammation

immune defense against injury, infection, or allergens marked by heat, fever, and pain

oxidation

interaction of a compound with oxygen

dietary antioxidant

substance in food that significantly decreases the damaging effects of reactive compounds, such as reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen on tissue functioning

eicosanoids

biologically active compounds that regulate body functions

linoleic acid

(18:2); omega-6; DRI=5%-10% of kcals; vegetable oils

linolenic acid

(18:3); omega-3; DRI=0.6%-1.2% of kcals; fish, flax, canola, soy, walnuts, human milk

omega-6 fatty acid

polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond 6 carbons from end of the carbon chain

arachidonic acid

omega-6 fatty acid derived from linoleic acid

omega-3 fatty acid

polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond 3 carbons from the end of the carbon chain; linolenic acid

EPA, DHA

omega-3 fatty acids made from linolenic acid in the tissues of fish

methylmercury

any toxic compound of mercury to which a characteristic chemical structure, a methyl group, has ben added; causes nerve damage in people

hydrogenation

process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make fat more solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation

smoking point

temperature at which fat gives off an acrid blue gas

trans-fatty acids

fatty acids with unusual shapes that can arise when hydrogens are added to the unsaturated fatty acids of polyunsaturated oils

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