A&P 121 - Study Guide for Test #2

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Two types of vesicular transport include

1. Endocytosis

2. Exocytosis

A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates

Phagocytosis

Which type of transport involves the movement of water

Osmosis

Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that

It requires a carrier

Glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell

Cytosol

Electron transport chain occurs in what part of the cell

Inter-Mitochondrian Membrane

TCA Cycle occurs in what part of the cell

Matrix of Mitochondria

Mitochondria needs this to break down food and produce ATP

Oxygen

Glucose is converted to __________ before it enters the Mitochondria and the TCA Cycle

Pyruvic Acid

Examples of an Inorganic Substance is

CO2 O2 H2O
Inorganic Acids, Bases, and Salts

In the Body, Inorganic Compounds

Act as a solvent; Cooling through evaporation;
Transport Medium for dissolved materials and heat;
Medium for chemical reactions; Reactant in hydrolysis;
Structural components; Buffers; Sources of Ions;
Forms electrolytes; O2: Required for cellular metabolism;
CO2: Generated by cells as a waste product;
NO: chemical messenger in cardiovascular, nervous, and lymphatic systems

A solution containing equal numbers of Hydrogen Ions and Hydroxide Ions

Neutral Solution

In an aqueous solution, cations are attracted toward

Anions

The group of organic compounds containing Carbon, Hydrogen,Oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a

Carbohydrate

Most of the fat found in the human body is in the form of

Triglycerides

A polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose is

Glycogen

The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is

Glucose C6H12O6

All of the following are functions of protein

Support; Transport; Metabolic Regulation;
Movement; Buffering; Coordination / Control Defense

You would expect a peptide bond to link

Adjacent Amino Acids used to form Polypeptides or Proteins

A linear chain of Amino Acids is termed what type of structure

Primary Structure

Interaction between individual tertiary structures to form a protein complex is a __________ structure

Quaternary

An Amino Acid is to a Protein as __________ is to a Nucleic Acid

Nucleotides

The most abundant high-energy compound in cells is

ATP

Identify the product formed from the phosphorylation of ADP

ATP

The term used to collectively describe the organelles and the liquid in a cell is what

Cytoplasm

All of the following are funtions of the Plasma Membrane

Physical Isolation; Monitor Environment;
Regulate Change; Structural Support

Which Structural Protein is also important in cell division

Proteasomes

The Organelle that forms lysosomes is

Golgi Apparatus / Inactive Enzymes

The Powerhouse of the cell is what

Mitochondria

The process of protein translation occurs in what part of the cell

Cytoplasm

The Organelle where Protein Synthesis occurs is what

Ribosomes

This term describes a substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical reactions

Element

What is the most abundant element in the body

Oxygen

The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to _____ electrons

2

Isotopes of an element differ in the number of

Neutrons

The weakest bond between two atoms is the __________ bond

Hydrogen

Ionic Bonds are formed when

Cations (+) and Anions (-) attract +/-

If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n) _______________ occurs

Polar Covalent Bond

During Mitosis, Chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during

Anaphase

During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs

Telophase

The term used to describe the moment in Mitosis when the Chromosomes align in a central plane is termed what

Metaphase

During Mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has

Nucleus

Which of these transport processes always requires metabolic energy

Vesicular Transport (Active Process)

The reaction N2 + 3 H2 ---- 2 NH3 is an example of a(an)

Synthesis Reaction

(ABC-H + HO-DE ----- ABCDE + H2O) This is an example of what type of reaction

Dehydration Synthesis or
Condensation Reaction

In Hydrolysis Reactions, compounds react with

Water

The Triplet Codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the

Nucleus

The process of forming mRNA is called

Transcription

As each Codon arrives at the active site of a Ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the Anticodon and an Amino Acid. this molecule is called

tRNA

The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called

Interphase

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