plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
sack-like photosynthetic membranes contained in chloroplasts, interconnected to each other
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
energy transporter used in Calvin Cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
a stack of thylakoids within a chloroplast
(physics) electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation
the different energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
a tiny particle or packet of light energy
A light harvesting unit of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; consists of several hundred antenna molecules, a reaction center chlorophyll, and a primary electron acceptor.
reaction center complex
A complex of proteins associated with a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. Located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis.
light harvesting complex
A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules (including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem.
primary electron acceptor
the acceptor of the electrons lost from chlorophyll a is a molecule in the thylakoid membrane
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
linear electron flow
Primary Pathway- A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems (I and II) and produces ATP, NADPH, and O2. The net electron flow is from H2O to NADP+.
cyclic electron flow
Secondary Pathway- A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
Store the organic acids made at night in vacuoles and use them for photosynthesis during the day when stomata are closed
bundle sheath cells
A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
a 3 carbon sugar; for each CO2 are formed in the Calvin cycle; 1 leaves to be used in the cell, 5 are use for regeneration of RuBP