the middle class
government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to the old system
a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
the right to vote
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Concerned with worldly rather than religious matters
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
to add a territory onto an existing state or country
the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
a hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
to give up power
Principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Declaration of Pillnitz
King of Prussia and emperor of Austria issued a declaration threatening to intervene to protect French monarchy.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and feudal documents.
red, white, and blue badge worn by members of the National Guard that was eventually adopted as the national flag of France
Very radical political club that wanted a republic for France Also responsible for the execution of the King
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the National Convention, 12 people, had almost absolute power, battled to protect the revolution, and prepared France for war by ordering all citizens to join the war-effort, responsible for executing up to 40,000 French deemed as traitors to the revolution
Phase 4 - government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon's agreement with Catholic Church, Church under state control but recognized religious freedom
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon. Preserved many of the rights of the people gained by the revolution.
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson. Ended Napoleon's plans to invade Britain.
The site of Napoleon's final defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
Alliance between Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Great Britian. Pledged to act together to maintain balance of power and surpress revolutionary uprisings following the French Revolution.
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, due to the French financial crisis. His failure to enact reform would led to the French Revolution. Louis and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, tax the first and second estates, abolish tarriffs on internal trade in order to avoid bankruptcy
the Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who fought alongside the Americans in the Revolutionary War and then commanded the French National Guard during the French Revolution
queen of France (wife of Louis XVI) who was very unpopular. Known as "madame deficit" due to her lavish spending.
A French political leader of the 18th century. A Jacobin, a radical leader of the French Revolution. Headed the Committee of Public Safety, responsible for the Reign of Terror, was later executed.
introduced the guillotin as a more humane way of beheading = Equality of Punishment
Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
Clemens von Metternich
the most influential figure at the Congress of Vienna; wanted to restore the "status quo" of 1792
British prime minister who was the representative at the Congress of Vienna who sought a European balance of power, in which no single state or combination of states would dominate Europe.
French diplomat who attended the Congress of Vienna on behalf of King Louis XVIII; He tried to get France the best deal possible
It consisted of the Roman Catholic Clergy; they received special privileges and paid no direct taxes. = less than 1% of the French population.
Consisted of the noblility of France = less than 2% of the French population. They received special privileges and paid no direct taxes
Largest of the Three Estates, made up of Bourgeoisie, Peasants, and Urban Workers. Had the least money and power but paid the virtually all of the taxes.
The National Assembly = Moderate Phase
First phase of the French Revolution 1789-1791. Moderate Phase that attempted to reform French government and society. Key points: Tennis Court Oath, Storming the Bastille, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Constitution of 1791
The National Convention = Radical Phase
Second phase of the French Revolution 1792-1795, Radicals gain control of National Assembly creating the National Convention. The Monarchy is abolished, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed, Committee of Public Safety created, Reign of Terror
Third Phase of the French Revolution 1795-1799, Constitution of 1795 written, Five Man Directory established overthrown by Napoleon.
Age of Napoleon
Fourth phase of the Revolution 1799-1815. Napoleon overthrows the Directory, establishes the Consulate, named 1st consul then "consul for life", eventually becomes "Emperor of the French"
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace in Europe by restoring the balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
urban working class that want France to become a republic
Causes of the French Revolution
1. Economic Crisis
2. Outdated Estates System
3. Enlightenment Ideas
military policy of destroying everything as you retreat so it can't be used by the enemy used by Russia as Napoleon's Grand Army invaded Russia
Battle of Waterloo
Location of the battle in which Napoleon met his final defeat ending his reign as Emperor of The French
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong to threaten others
Confederation of the Rhine
League of 38 German States organized by Napoleon and put under the "protection" of France. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.