HIS 121 Midterm 1

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120 terms · American History - Lynn Rainard - TCC - Midterm Exam Study Questions

In what way did sixteenth-century Europeans benefit from trade between the Americas and Europe?

A large number of new crops became available in Europe.

In the late fifteenth century, the desire in Europe to look for new lands was spurred by

significant population growth.

The English concluded from their colonial experiences in Ireland that

English colonists should maintain a rigid separation from the indigenous population.

Christopher Columbus

thought the world was much smaller than it was in reality.

As a result of his third voyage in 1498, Christopher Columbus concluded

he had encountered a continent separate from Asia.

The agricultural practices of pre-Columbian tribes in the Northeast were characterized by

a rapid exploitation of the land.

In what way were Martin Luther and John Calvin important to English Puritans?

Luther and Calvin advocated ideas of religious reform that influenced Puritan thought.

What condition in England in the sixteenth century provided an incentive for colonization?

The availability of farmland was declining while the population was growing.

Between 1500 and 1800, African immigrants to the Americas

nearly all came against their will and made up over half of all immigrants to the New World.

The English Reformation resulted from

a political dispute between King Henry VIII and the Catholic Church.

An encomienda was

the right to exact tribute and labor from natives.

Which statement regarding the economic theory of mercantilism is FALSE?

It reduced the desire for nations to acquire and maintain colonies.

The origins of the majority of human existence in North America began

with migrations from Eurasia over the Bering Strait.

An important consequence of the defeat of the Spanish Armada was that

England found the seas more open to their control.

In the fifteenth century, slavery in Africa

generally allowed certain legal protections to the enslaved.

The English Parliament enacted the Navigation Acts primarily to benefit

British business and merchants.

Originally, the Georgia colony excluded

both free blacks and slaves.

The first important economic boom in Jamestown resulted from

the production of tobacco.

The Virginia Company developed the "headright" system to

attract new settlers to the colony.

Seventeenth-century English colonial settlements

were essentially business enterprises.

The suppression of Bacon's Rebellion helped spur

slavery in Virginia.

Unlike Puritans, the Quakers

rejected the doctrine of original sin.

The first blacks imported to Virginia in 1619

were most likely indentured servants.

The Massachusetts Bay Puritans

created a colonial "theocracy."

When the House of Burgesses was created in Virginia in 1619,

colonists were given a share of local political representation.

The New York colony

emerged after a struggle between the English and the Dutch.

The Puritan founders in Massachusetts who described their colony as a "shining city upon a hill"

felt they were creating a holy community that would be a model for the world.

Regarding the origins of slavery in the North American English colonies,

many colonies gradually embraced slavery as a solution to their labor troubles.

The development of the Carolina colony was notable in that

the northern and southern regions were economically and socially distinct from each other.

In its beginning, the Maryland colony

was a refuge for English Catholics.

The largest contingent of immigrants during the colonial period were the

Scotch-Irish.

In colonial New England Puritan communities, women

were expected to be major contributors to the family.

By 1700, English colonial landowners began to rely more heavily on African slavery because

of a declining birthrate in England.

In the seventeenth century, the great majority of English immigrants who came to the Chesapeake region were

indentured servants.

Seventeenth-century southern plantations

tended to be rough and relatively small.

In the seventeenth century, white women in colonial Chesapeake

averaged one pregnancy for every two years of marriage.

In the "triangular trade," the North American colonies primarily contributed

raw materials.

"Primogeniture" refers to the

passing of property to the firstborn son.

The term "middle passage" refers to the movement of enslaved Africans

from Africa to the New World.

In the North American colonies, mulatto children were

rarely recognized by their white fathers.

In the outbreaks of witchcraft hysteria that marked New England colonial life, those accused were most commonly

women of low social position.

The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s

had particular appeal with women and young men.

The most common form of resistance by enslaved Africans to their condition was

subtle defiance or evasion of their masters.

Which statement about the economy of the northern colonies is true?

Agriculture was more diverse than in the southern colonies.

By the mid-eighteenth century, a distinct colonial merchant class came into existence because of

illegal colonial trade in markets outside of the British Empire.

When he became British Prime Minister, George Grenville

believed the American colonists had been indulged for far too long.

Following the conclusion of the French and Indian War,

many colonists resented England's interference in their local affairs.

The Tea Act of 1773

All these answers are correct.

Who among the following took the lead in protesting against the Stamp Act?

Patrick Henry

The Declaratory Act of 1766

was a sweeping assertion of Parliament's authority over the colonies.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, England's administration of the colonies

was loose, decentralized, and inefficient.

By the 1750s, American colonial assemblies

exercised a significant degree of authority to levy taxes.

The Boston Massacre

was transformed by some colonists into a symbol of British oppression.

According to the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763,

France ceded Canada and all of its claims to land east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Great Britain.

In 1774, the First Continental Congress

called for the repeal of all oppressive legislation passed since 1763.

In the 1760s, "country Whigs" were English colonists who

considered the British government to be corrupt and oppressive.

In the eighteenth century, the English constitution was

an unwritten document.

English and American supporters of the English constitution felt it correctly divided power between

the monarchy, the aristocracy, and representative assemblies.

Taverns were important in the growth of revolutionary sentiment because

they become central meeting places to discuss ideas about resistance.

Many colonists believed the legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765

meant the British were trying to take away their tradition of self-government.

Following the American Revolution, the first state to make slavery illegal was

Pennsylvania.

In regards to the status of women, the effect of the American Revolution

led some women to question their position in society.

The Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 represented an attempt to

provide for the admission of new states into the union.

After the Battle of Saratoga, British Prime Minister Lord North responded to the colonies with

an offer of complete colonial home rule within the empire if they would quit the war.

The principal Americans who negotiated the peace terms with the British were

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.

The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty of 1786

called for a complete separation of church and state.

The war effort by American colonists would be financed primarily by

borrowing from abroad.

At the start of the Revolution, American advantages over the British included a

greater commitment to the war.

For most Revolutionary American political thinkers, the concept of equality meant

there should be equality of opportunity.

Under the Articles of Confederation, in 1777 there was a federal

congress.

In the thinking of most American political leaders, the success of their new republican governments depended on

independent landowners.

One effect of Shays's Rebellion was it

contributed to the growing belief the national government needed reform.

During the American Revolution, enslaved African Americans in the colonies

were assisted by the British to escape as a way to disrupt the American war effort.

In 1775, as conflicts with England intensified, American colonists

were deeply divided about what they were fighting for.

The battle at Yorktown involved

a combined French and American army and navy.

According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Supreme Court was to be

the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.

At the start of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 the delegates agreed that

the country needed a stronger central government.

By the late 1780s, dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation included a belief that the national government

was ineffective.

The achievement of the "Great Compromise" of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was its resolution of the problem regarding

political representation.

In the 1790s, those who were labeled Republicans envisioned developing a nation that would

be largely agricultural and rural.

In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it was asserted that

states had the right to nullify federal laws.

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 recommended the document be ratified by

special state ratifying conventions.

Alexander Hamilton's plan for the federal government to assume state debts was passed by Congress after a deal was made to

locate the nation's capital between Virginia and Maryland.

In 1786, Alexander Hamilton found an important ally in his push for a stronger central government in

James Madison.

At the Philadelphia convention, James Madison argued that the ultimate authority of the federal government came from the

people.

The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)

gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.

The "Antifederalists"

saw themselves as defenders of the principles of the American Revolution and feared that the new government would widely abuse its powers.

Which event, more than any other, convinced George Washington that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised?

Shays's Rebellion

In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, for the purpose of political representation, slaves were classified as

three-fifths of a free person.

The emergence of an alternative political organization to the Federalists was prompted by

belief that the power of the central government needed to be restrained.

In 1812, Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun could best be described as

war hawks.

The Supreme Court's ruling in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803)

stated that the Supreme Court had no authority to expand the power of the Supreme Court, and that the Supreme Court had the power to nullify an act of Congress.

When Thomas Jefferson received the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, he

was unsure of his constitutional authority to accept it.

In 1814, the British

seized Washington and set fire to the presidential mansion.

The Chesapeake-Leopard incident

led the United States to prohibit its ships from leaving for foreign ports.

Eli Whitney is a major figure in American technology for introducing

the concept of interchangeable parts.

The religious concept of deism

incorporated science and reason into religious faith.

Which statement about the War of 1812 is true?

The United States entered the war with enthusiasm and optimism.

The invention of the cotton gin in the late eighteenth century

had a profound effect on the textile industry in New England.

The Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812

began an improvement in relations between England and the United States.

The early nineteenth century in America is known as the "turnpike era" because

many roads were built for profit by private companies.

In 1800 Washington, D.C.

was little more than a simple village.

The Second Great Awakening

began as an effort by church establishments to revitalize their organizations.

As president, Thomas Jefferson

sought to convey the public image of a plain, ordinary citizen.

Regarding education, early nineteenth-century Republicans favored

a nationwide system of free public schools for all male citizens.

The presidential administration of John Quincy Adams

was noted for its inability to carry out its policies effectively.

The Supreme Court ruling in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

strengthened the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.

After the War of 1812, it was clear that the United States needed an improved

internal transportation system.

In McCullough v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court confirmed the

"implied powers" of Congress.

The first American mill to carry on the processes of spinning and weaving under a single roof was located in

Waltham, Massachusetts.

The Monroe Doctrine declared that

European powers should not engage in new colonization of the American continents.

During the presidential campaign of 1828,

Andrew Jackson was labeled a murderer.

The "era of good feelings" following the War of 1812 reflected

rising nationalism and optimism in the United States.

As a result of the War of 1812,

the growth of American manufacturing was stimulated.

One cause of the Panic of 1819 was

new management practices within the Bank of the United States.

The Missouri Compromise of 1819

maintained the nation's equal number of slave and free states.

The experience of American banking during the War of 1812 revealed the need for

another national bank.

By 1818, American steam-powered shipping

All these answers are correct.

The so-called "corrupt bargain" of 1824 involved

a political deal to determine the outcome of the presidential election.

The election of 1828

saw the emergence of a new two-party system.

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