In what way did sixteenth-century Europeans benefit from trade between the Americas and Europe?
A large number of new crops became available in Europe.
In the late fifteenth century, the desire in Europe to look for new lands was spurred by
significant population growth.
The English concluded from their colonial experiences in Ireland that
English colonists should maintain a rigid separation from the indigenous population.
As a result of his third voyage in 1498, Christopher Columbus concluded
he had encountered a continent separate from Asia.
The agricultural practices of pre-Columbian tribes in the Northeast were characterized by
a rapid exploitation of the land.
In what way were Martin Luther and John Calvin important to English Puritans?
Luther and Calvin advocated ideas of religious reform that influenced Puritan thought.
What condition in England in the sixteenth century provided an incentive for colonization?
The availability of farmland was declining while the population was growing.
Between 1500 and 1800, African immigrants to the Americas
nearly all came against their will and made up over half of all immigrants to the New World.
The English Reformation resulted from
a political dispute between King Henry VIII and the Catholic Church.
Which statement regarding the economic theory of mercantilism is FALSE?
It reduced the desire for nations to acquire and maintain colonies.
The origins of the majority of human existence in North America began
with migrations from Eurasia over the Bering Strait.
An important consequence of the defeat of the Spanish Armada was that
England found the seas more open to their control.
In the fifteenth century, slavery in Africa
generally allowed certain legal protections to the enslaved.
The English Parliament enacted the Navigation Acts primarily to benefit
British business and merchants.
The Virginia Company developed the "headright" system to
attract new settlers to the colony.
When the House of Burgesses was created in Virginia in 1619,
colonists were given a share of local political representation.
The Puritan founders in Massachusetts who described their colony as a "shining city upon a hill"
felt they were creating a holy community that would be a model for the world.
Regarding the origins of slavery in the North American English colonies,
many colonies gradually embraced slavery as a solution to their labor troubles.
The development of the Carolina colony was notable in that
the northern and southern regions were economically and socially distinct from each other.
In colonial New England Puritan communities, women
were expected to be major contributors to the family.
By 1700, English colonial landowners began to rely more heavily on African slavery because
of a declining birthrate in England.
In the seventeenth century, the great majority of English immigrants who came to the Chesapeake region were
In the seventeenth century, white women in colonial Chesapeake
averaged one pregnancy for every two years of marriage.
In the "triangular trade," the North American colonies primarily contributed
The term "middle passage" refers to the movement of enslaved Africans
from Africa to the New World.
In the outbreaks of witchcraft hysteria that marked New England colonial life, those accused were most commonly
women of low social position.
The most common form of resistance by enslaved Africans to their condition was
subtle defiance or evasion of their masters.
Which statement about the economy of the northern colonies is true?
Agriculture was more diverse than in the southern colonies.
By the mid-eighteenth century, a distinct colonial merchant class came into existence because of
illegal colonial trade in markets outside of the British Empire.
When he became British Prime Minister, George Grenville
believed the American colonists had been indulged for far too long.
Following the conclusion of the French and Indian War,
many colonists resented England's interference in their local affairs.
The Declaratory Act of 1766
was a sweeping assertion of Parliament's authority over the colonies.
During the first half of the eighteenth century, England's administration of the colonies
was loose, decentralized, and inefficient.
By the 1750s, American colonial assemblies
exercised a significant degree of authority to levy taxes.
According to the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763,
France ceded Canada and all of its claims to land east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Great Britain.
In 1774, the First Continental Congress
called for the repeal of all oppressive legislation passed since 1763.
In the 1760s, "country Whigs" were English colonists who
considered the British government to be corrupt and oppressive.
English and American supporters of the English constitution felt it correctly divided power between
the monarchy, the aristocracy, and representative assemblies.
Taverns were important in the growth of revolutionary sentiment because
they become central meeting places to discuss ideas about resistance.
Many colonists believed the legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765
meant the British were trying to take away their tradition of self-government.
In regards to the status of women, the effect of the American Revolution
led some women to question their position in society.
The Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 represented an attempt to
provide for the admission of new states into the union.
After the Battle of Saratoga, British Prime Minister Lord North responded to the colonies with
an offer of complete colonial home rule within the empire if they would quit the war.
The principal Americans who negotiated the peace terms with the British were
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty of 1786
called for a complete separation of church and state.
At the start of the Revolution, American advantages over the British included a
greater commitment to the war.
For most Revolutionary American political thinkers, the concept of equality meant
there should be equality of opportunity.
In the thinking of most American political leaders, the success of their new republican governments depended on
One effect of Shays's Rebellion was it
contributed to the growing belief the national government needed reform.
During the American Revolution, enslaved African Americans in the colonies
were assisted by the British to escape as a way to disrupt the American war effort.
In 1775, as conflicts with England intensified, American colonists
were deeply divided about what they were fighting for.
According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Supreme Court was to be
the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
At the start of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 the delegates agreed that
the country needed a stronger central government.
By the late 1780s, dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation included a belief that the national government
The achievement of the "Great Compromise" of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was its resolution of the problem regarding
In the 1790s, those who were labeled Republicans envisioned developing a nation that would
be largely agricultural and rural.
In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it was asserted that
states had the right to nullify federal laws.
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 recommended the document be ratified by
special state ratifying conventions.
Alexander Hamilton's plan for the federal government to assume state debts was passed by Congress after a deal was made to
locate the nation's capital between Virginia and Maryland.
In 1786, Alexander Hamilton found an important ally in his push for a stronger central government in
At the Philadelphia convention, James Madison argued that the ultimate authority of the federal government came from the
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.
saw themselves as defenders of the principles of the American Revolution and feared that the new government would widely abuse its powers.
Which event, more than any other, convinced George Washington that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised?
In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, for the purpose of political representation, slaves were classified as
three-fifths of a free person.
The emergence of an alternative political organization to the Federalists was prompted by
belief that the power of the central government needed to be restrained.
The Supreme Court's ruling in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803)
stated that the Supreme Court had no authority to expand the power of the Supreme Court, and that the Supreme Court had the power to nullify an act of Congress.
When Thomas Jefferson received the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, he
was unsure of his constitutional authority to accept it.
The Chesapeake-Leopard incident
led the United States to prohibit its ships from leaving for foreign ports.
Eli Whitney is a major figure in American technology for introducing
the concept of interchangeable parts.
Which statement about the War of 1812 is true?
The United States entered the war with enthusiasm and optimism.
The invention of the cotton gin in the late eighteenth century
had a profound effect on the textile industry in New England.
The Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812
began an improvement in relations between England and the United States.
The early nineteenth century in America is known as the "turnpike era" because
many roads were built for profit by private companies.
The Second Great Awakening
began as an effort by church establishments to revitalize their organizations.
Regarding education, early nineteenth-century Republicans favored
a nationwide system of free public schools for all male citizens.
The presidential administration of John Quincy Adams
was noted for its inability to carry out its policies effectively.
The Supreme Court ruling in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
strengthened the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
After the War of 1812, it was clear that the United States needed an improved
internal transportation system.
In McCullough v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court confirmed the
"implied powers" of Congress.
The first American mill to carry on the processes of spinning and weaving under a single roof was located in
The Monroe Doctrine declared that
European powers should not engage in new colonization of the American continents.
The "era of good feelings" following the War of 1812 reflected
rising nationalism and optimism in the United States.
The experience of American banking during the War of 1812 revealed the need for
another national bank.
The so-called "corrupt bargain" of 1824 involved
a political deal to determine the outcome of the presidential election.