Structures and Regions of the Human Brain

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All 29 BASIC structures of the brain and their associated functions.

Basal Ganglia

Structures in the forebrain that help to control movement, skill learning, habit formation, and the reward system.

Brain Stem

Responsible for maintaining homeostasis, alertness, sleep, balance, and the startle response.

Pons

Responsible for regulating autonomic processes involved in respiration, and taste. Located adjacent to brain stem.

Cerebellum

Coordinates voluntary movement, motor learning, balance, reflexes, posture, timing and sequential learning. Posterior portion of the inferior brain.

Corpus Collosum

Large band of neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Frontal Lobe

In charge of voluntary processes such as deciding, planning, problem solving, thinking. Is the site of attention, intelligence, and comprehension. Forebrain.

Broca's Area

Controls language expression-an area of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Prefrontal Cortex

Part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language. "Higher thinking."

Premotor Cortex

Area of the frontal cortex, just anterior to the primary motor cortex, active during the planning of a movement. Site of imitation and empathy.

Primary Motor Cortex

The region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located posterior to the frontal lobes.

Limbic System

a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex.

Amygdala

Two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotions such as fear and anger.

Cingulate Cortex

A long curved structure on the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres, responsible for pain processing and emotions. Memory and self regulation are also minor functions. Part of the limbic system.

Dentate Gyrus

Associated with memory formation and memory recall. Part of the limbic system.

Entorhinal Cortex

Associated with evoking memories and sends them to the hippocampus. Part of the limbic system.

Hippocampus

Associated with early memory storage and the formation of long term memories. Part of the limbic system.

Hypothalmus

Structure in the limbic system that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature. Regulates important autonomic processes such as blood pressure, heart rate as well as perspiration, pupil dilation, shivering, and circadian rhythms (biological clocks).

Subiculum

Part of the limbic system related to memory, information, and stress processing.

Occipital Lobe

Portion of the brain posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision.

Parietal Lobe

Portion posterior to the frontal lobe and anterior to the occipital lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch.

Somatosensory Cortex

Portion of the parietal lobe responsible for sensory processing and integration.

Postcentral Gyrus

Portion of the parietal lobe responsible for sensory processing and integration.

Temporal Lobe

that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain inferior to the parietal and frontal lobes lying inside the temples of the head, responsible for hearing, vision, smell, and language interpretation.

Middle Inferior Temporal Gyri

Part of the temporal lobe responsible for word retrieval, visual perception and recognition, and autobiographical memory.

Perirhinal Cortex

Part of the temporal lobe responsible for object recognition and memory formation and storage.

Superior Temporal Gyrus

Most superior part of temporal lobe containing the primary auditory cortex, responsible for sound production.

Wernicke's Area

Superior posterior portion of temporal lobe responsible for language comprehension.

Thalamus

Relays information between the cortex and the brain stem, associated with alertness, consciousness.

Ventricles

Interconnected fluid filled chambers that are extensions of the spinal cord which serve as cushions from brain damage.

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