6.4 Microscopic Structure of Bone and Cartilage

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Anatomy and Physiology class, Ch.6, Structure and Function of the Body 13th Edition Authors: Gary A. Thibodeau and Kevin T. Patton

Q: What are the two major types of connective tissue in the skeletal system?

A: bone and cartilage.

Q: What determines the appearance and texture of a bone?

A: location

D: dense or compact bone

= the hard and dense outer layer of bone

D: spongy bone

= the porous bone in the end of the long bone. It contains many spaces that may be filled with marrow.

D: trabeculae

= Needlelike threads of spongy bone that surround a network of spaces in spongy bone

D: matrix

= intercellular material of various amounts and kinds found between cells of connective tissue.In addition to the relatively few cells embedded in the matrix of most types of connective tissue, varying numbers and kinds of fibers are also present.

D: Haversian system

= the matrix of numerous, organized units called osteons which comprise the structural make-up of compact bone.

D: osteons

= circular and tubelike calcified matrices arranged in multiple layers resembling the rings of an onion. They are the structural units of compact bone.

D: concentric lamella

= the circular rings, or lamellae, which comprise osteons. Lamellae surround the central canal which contains a blood vessel.

D: central cannal

= the center circle of concentric lamellae of an osteon which contains a blood vessel

D: blood vessel

= a tubular structure carrying blood through tissues and organs; a vein, artery or capillary

D: osteocytes

= living bone cells that reside within the lifeless matrix of a bone

D: lacunae

= little spaces that lie between the hard layers of the lamellae and which contain osteocytes

D: canaliculi

= tiny passageways, or canals that connect the lacunae with one another and with the central canal in each osteon.

Q: what is the function of canaliculi?

A = nutrients pass from the blood vessel in the central canal through the canaliculi to the osteocytes.

D: Cartilage

= a connective tissue that has a matrix with a consistency of a firm plastic or gristle-like gel. Cartilage cells, chondrocytes, are located in tiny spaces distributed throughout a matrix of lacunae. The lacunae are suspended in the cartilage matrix much like air bubbles in a block of firm gelatin.

Q: What is the function of collagenous fibers in bone?

A: they reinforce the matrix of the calcified cement like substance of the connective tissue that is bone.

Q: Does Cartilage have blood vessels?

A: no

Q: How does cartilage get nutrients?

A: nutrients must diffuse through the matrix to reach the cells. Note that because of this lack of blood vessels, cartilage rebuilds itself very slowly after an injury.

D: Chondrocytes

= cartilage cells

D: lacunae

= plural of lacuna, the little spaces in between the hard layers of the lamellae, where osteocytes lie

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