one source of all things, and everything else is less important (Taoism)
the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
a lack of belief in the existence of God or gods
type of religion: belief that one's own tradition is the only true religion and that others are invalid - christianity, judaism, islam
a philosophy which holds that there are many gods, with a worshiper of any God receiving his or her blessing. A belief of one out of many.
belief in a single God
belief in multiple Gods
the union (or attempted fusion) of different systems of thought or belief (especially in religion or philosophy)
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
the most complex form of religion thus far, product of proto-indians and Aryan-indians blended together for over 1000 years, a broad categorization of many Indian religions, about blurring the destination between humanity and divinity
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran. Principle traders on cinnamon route.
philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
oldest form of monotheism in the world, practiced by Arya as they traveled to India. Founded in Persia, practiced by persian empire.
creation: springs from dismembered parts of the body of the primeval being
creation: in many native american myths, animal sent into the water to find sand or mud to create land
creation: world is formed by the mating of two primordial beings
creation: out of nothing, creation from chaos
creation: our world comes out of another world, humans are brought up into this world
Out of Africa Theory
theory that Africa is the birthplace for all human species; humans migrate from Africa towards other areas of the world around 1.5 million years ago
extinct genus of African hominid
extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain
the only surviving hominid
extinct species of upright east African hominid having some advanced humanlike characteristics
extinct member of the Homo genus found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia
Sanskrit: true self
Sanskrit for an object or objective, wealth, material goal
came to India, settled in Valley of the Indus, technologically and militarily superior to natives, mixture of them and natives forms Hinduism
a monastic, Buddhist monk, lives a simple and and meditative life to attain nirvana
someone who chooses to reincarnate, even though they don't need to, the fat buddha or Dalai Lama
title of one who has become enlightened, title of Siddhartha Guatama Sakyamuni
ground of the universe, entirety of the universe
duty, and how you fulfill your self duty
Sanskrit for pleasure, desire
action and consequences, for every action there is a consequence, they are one
in Sanskrit, literally a 'sacred utterance'
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths, no longer reincarnation, salvation
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment, also what you become: extinction, obliteration, "candle blown out"
buddhist, one who renounces himself/herself, gives up everything, gives up name and title
cycle of birth, life, death, rebirth or reincarnation
an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
Aryan sacred drink, sweetened with honey, still used as a medicine. Not an Indian plant, brought in with Aryans
Hindu Caste System
warriors, kingly caste
herders, farmers, merchants, craftspeople, producing caste
farm workers, servants, laboring caste
untouchables, butchers, leather making caste
Chinese way of looking at the universe: Humans must be harmonious so that heaven and earth will be harmonious. Good things will happen if humans are harmonious, like the crops will grow at the right times. But if they are not harmonious, bad things such as droughts will occur.
rituals, influences great harmony
uncarved block of wood, Taoist idea of perfection, with unlimited potential
ideal Taoist, operates outside social norms, unconcerned with social status, rejects traditional education, mind is centered on the one
gentlemen, ideal confucian, exemplifies social norms, seeks rank, wealth, and fame, a custodian of traditional education, mind is centered on the good,
the way of the universe, pure potential, inexplicable
action by non action, Taoist idea, solving problems before they start, knowing when to act and when not to act.
Interplay of opposites, both need each other. You need opposites to be in harmony. Tao manifests into pure potential
a system of ethics based on humans, the whole universe revolves around us, everything is about humans
Siddhartha Guatama Sakyamuni
the original buddha, a wise spiritual leader, was once a prince; on which the principal teachings of buddhism were founded
The Middle Way
root of buddhist society: truth exists between extremes "if the string is too tight it will snap, if the string is too loose it won't play!"
Alexander the Great
set an example for Indian government, Chandragupta Maurya was inspired by him, he defeated the persians, a showman (dressed well)
guy who discoverd sanskrit and latin are related
Founded Mauryan Empire, India's first empire. An Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.
third ruler of the Mauryan Empire who converted to Buddhism
Greatest of the Kushan emperors
one of the Hindu epics, story of India, when Aryan's were settling into India, fighting against each other
one of the Hindu epics, story of Incarnation of Vishnu named Rama
1081 Hyms to various gods
body of ancient scriptures that come before the Upanishads
Founder of Taoism
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
enduring pain for the process of purification
4 Noble Truths
1. Suffering, Life is suffering. We will all grow old and die.
2. Origin of suffering is the desire for permanence, fear of change.
3. End of suffering, rather than lamenting change, embrace it.
4. How to do it? Follow the 8-fold path of the Buddha.
Buddhism, the way to embrace change and end suffering.
a peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
a northwestern arm of the Indian Ocean between India and Arabia
Bay of Bengal
an arm of the Indian Ocean east of India
a mountainous republic in southeastern Asia on the Bay of Bengal
River that begins in Tibet, flows through northeast India and Bangladesh, joining with the Ganges to empty into the Bay of Bengal.
a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia
medieval Hindu kingdom on the Malabar Coast, South India
a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh
a mountain range in Asia, separating India from the Tibetan Plateau
a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, the earliest Indian civilization began in the valley of this river
Indian state on the Malabar Coast, South India
a mountain pass of great strategic and commercial value to the Kushans on the border between northern Pakistan and western Afghanistan
ancient sea port on the banks of the River Periya, in modern day Kerala
city in northern Pakistan at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass
a theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia
a historical region on northwestern India and northern Pakistan
a long arm of the Indian Ocean between northeast Africa and Arabia
Africa's largest desert
a republic on the island of Ceylon
This Desert (in China) is known for splitting the Silk Road into branches running north and south of it. It is bounded by mountain ranges. Name means "once you go in you will not come out".
a state in southeastern India on the Bay of Bengal
Rolling mountains west of the Deccan Plateau in Southern India.
The center of the three major rivers, longest river in Asia
The second longest river in China and the sixth longest in the world. The majority of ancient Chinese civilizations originated in the this river's Valley.
an island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa
Hindu god of fire
Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
Hindu goddess of war
Hindu god of wisdom or prophecy
chief god of the Rig-Veda, chief deity of the Aryans
wife of Siva and malevolent form of Devi
Hindu goddess of fortune and prosperity
Hindu god personifying a creative force
Hindu goddess of learning and the arts
Hindu god, the Destroyer
Hindu god, the Sustainer, preserves and sustains the universe.
4 Sights of Buddha
1. old age
a large flat area along the Congo River in central Africa
a large lowland in south Africa, including a desert
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
a particular society at a particular time and place
the custom of marrying only within the community, clan, or tribe
of societies or families, being female dominated
ancestry traces through your mother
having only one spouse at a time
(of societies) being ruled by or having descent traced through the male line
ancestry traces through your father
having more than one spouse at a time
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
group of people related by blood or marriage
ancient medical treatise summarizing the Hindu art of healing and prolonging life