### standard deviation

statistical measure of the spread of a probability distribution calculated by squaring the difference between each outcome and its expected value, weighting each value by its probability, summing over all possible outcomes, and taking the square root of this sum.

### company unique risk

unsystematic risk: related to an investment return that can be eliminated through diversification

### market risk

systematic risk: related to an investment return that cannot be eliminated through diversification

### holding period returns

the return an investor would receive from holding a security for a designated period of time.

### beta

relationship between an investments returns and the markets returns. this is a measure of the investments non-diversifiable risk.

### portfolio beta

relationship between a portfolios returns and the market returns. measure of the portfolios non-diversifiable risk.

### asset allocation

identifying and selecting the asset classes appropriate for a specific investment portfolio and determining the proportions of those assets within the portfolio

### required rate of return

minimum rate of return required necessary to attract an investor to purchase or hold a security

### capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

equation stating that the expected rate of return on a project is a function of the risk-free rate, the investments systematic risk, and the expected risk premium for the market portfolio of all risky securities.

### security market line

return line that reflects the attitudes of investors regarding the minimum acceptable return for a given level of systematic rick associated with a security

### bond

long term (10 year or more) promissory note issued by the borrower promising to pay the owner of the security a predetermined, fixed amount of interest each year.

### subordinated debenture

a debenture that is subordinate to other debentures in terms of its payments in case of insolvency

### eurobond

bond issued in a country different from the one in which the currency of the bond is denominated

### zero coupon bond

bond issued at a substantial discount from its $1000 face value and that pays little or no interest

### par value

on the face of the bond the stated amount that the firm is to repay upon the maturity date

### maturity

length of time until the bond issuer returns the par value to the bondholder and terminates the bond

### call provision

provision that entitles the corporation to repurchase its preferred stock from investors at stated prices over specified periods

### indenture

legal agreement between the firm issuing bonds and the bond trustee who represents the bondholders, providing the specific terms of the loan agreement

### book value

value of an asset as shown on the firms balance sheet. represents the historical cost of the asset rather than its current market value or replacement cost

### intrinsic value

present value of an assets expected future cash flows. this value is the amount the investor considers to be fair value, given the amount, timing and riskiness of future cash flows