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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.
  2. NaCl electrical gradient
    glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
    nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
    other electrolytes - solvent drag
    water - aqua porins
  3. yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
  4. primary function: production and excretion of urine

    Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
  5. 200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
    The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control
  6. the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla

5 True/False questions

  1. Describe who tubules secret solutes form the blood into the tubular fluidthe secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.

          

  2. Describe the process by which the kidney filters the blood plasma, including relevant cellular structures of the glomerulusthe secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.

          

  3. Name, locate and describe the organs of the urinary systemoverview, six organs
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

          

  4. trace the flow of blood through the kidneyHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava

          

  5. Explaint eh forces that promote and oppose glomerular filtrationFiltration pressure:
    Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
    -golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
    -glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
    -capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
    -capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg

          

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