6 Written Questions
6 Multiple Choice Questions
- the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
- 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
- Glomerular filtration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure:
autoregulation - mycogenic mechanism (keeps flow constant)
macula densa on DCT monitors flow (increase of arterioles bp causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole)
signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict (decrease of arteriole bp causes vasoconstriction of arteriole)
strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict, lower GFR and urine production, redirecting blood flow to visceral areas.
rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogenII to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure.
promotes water and NA reabsorption.
Stimulates sensation of thirst.
- 200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control
- the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
5 True/False Questions
List the functions of the renal system in addition to grin formation → primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastes → this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.
Describe how the renal tubeless reabsorb useful solutes from the golmerular filtrate and return them to the blood → NaCl electrical gradient
glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
other electrolytes - solvent drag
water - aqua porins
Trace the flow of fluid throughout the renal tubeless, and each function → Renal corpuscle:
-the glomerulus produces filtrate
-proximal convoluted tubule
-Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
-ascending limb of nephron loop
-Distal convoluted tubule
-collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
-papillary duct merges collecting duct together