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6 Written Questions

6 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. NaCl electrical gradient
    glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
    nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
    other electrolytes - solvent drag
    water - aqua porins
  2. protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
    Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
    Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
  3. ADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla
  4. Filtration pressure:
    Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
    -golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
    -glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
    -capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
    -capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
  5. primary function: production and excretion of urine

    Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
  6. Renal corpuscle:
    -the glomerulus produces filtrate
    -proximal convoluted tubule
    -Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
    -ascending limb of nephron loop
    -Distal convoluted tubule
    -collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
    -papillary duct merges collecting duct together

5 True/False Questions

  1. Explain how the nervous system and urethral sphincters control the voiding of urine200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
    The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control

          

  2. trace the flow of blood through the kidneyHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava

          

  3. Describe the composition and properties of urineHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava

          

  4. Name, locate and describe the organs of the urinary systemoverview, six organs
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

          

  5. Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to functionADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla

          

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