6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.
- NaCl electrical gradient
glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
other electrolytes - solvent drag
water - aqua porins
- yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
- primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
- 200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
5 True/False questions
Describe who tubules secret solutes form the blood into the tubular fluid → the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
Describe the process by which the kidney filters the blood plasma, including relevant cellular structures of the glomerulus → the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
Name, locate and describe the organs of the urinary system → overview, six organs
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
>arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava
Explaint eh forces that promote and oppose glomerular filtration → Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg