6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
- the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
- Glomerular filtration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure:
autoregulation - mycogenic mechanism (keeps flow constant)
macula densa on DCT monitors flow (increase of arterioles bp causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole)
signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict (decrease of arteriole bp causes vasoconstriction of arteriole)
strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict, lower GFR and urine production, redirecting blood flow to visceral areas.
rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogenII to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure.
promotes water and NA reabsorption.
Stimulates sensation of thirst.
- 200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control
- Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
5 True/False questions
Describe the functional anatomy of the ureters, urinary bladder, and male and female urethra. → primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastes → overview, six organs
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Describe how the renal tubeless reabsorb useful solutes from the golmerular filtrate and return them to the blood → NaCl electrical gradient
glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
other electrolytes - solvent drag
water - aqua porins
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
List the functions of the renal system in addition to grin formation → protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism