6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- Renal corpuscle:
-the glomerulus produces filtrate
-proximal convoluted tubule
-Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
-ascending limb of nephron loop
-Distal convoluted tubule
-collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
-papillary duct merges collecting duct together
- 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
- ADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla
- the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
- this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
5 True/False questions
Explain how the nervous system and urethral sphincters control the voiding of urine → yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
Describe the functional anatomy of the ureters, urinary bladder, and male and female urethra. → primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
Describe how the nervous system, hormones, and the kidney itself regulate glomerular filtration → Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
List the functions of the renal system in addition to grin formation → protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
>arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava