6 Written Questions
6 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
- NaCl electrical gradient
glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
other electrolytes - solvent drag
water - aqua porins
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
- overview, six organs
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
- Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
- Renal corpuscle:
-the glomerulus produces filtrate
-proximal convoluted tubule
-Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
-ascending limb of nephron loop
-Distal convoluted tubule
-collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
-papillary duct merges collecting duct together
5 True/False Questions
List the functions of the renal system in addition to grin formation → primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources → protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
Describe who the nephron regulates water excretion → the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
Describe who tubules secret solutes form the blood into the tubular fluid → the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
>arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava