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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
    Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
    Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
  2. ADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla
  3. Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava
  4. NaCl electrical gradient
    glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
    nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
    other electrolytes - solvent drag
    water - aqua porins
  5. Ureters transport urine to urinary bladder. the Bladder stores the urine until full; the urethra is the the exit by which urine leaves the body.
  6. Renal corpuscle:
    -the glomerulus produces filtrate
    -proximal convoluted tubule
    -Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
    -ascending limb of nephron loop
    -Distal convoluted tubule
    -collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
    -papillary duct merges collecting duct together

5 True/False questions

  1. Name, locate and describe the organs of the urinary systemthis is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.


  2. Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to functionthe counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla


  3. Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastesthis is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.


  4. Describe how the nervous system, hormones, and the kidney itself regulate glomerular filtrationGlomerular filtration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure:
    autoregulation - mycogenic mechanism (keeps flow constant)
    macula densa on DCT monitors flow (increase of arterioles bp causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole)
    signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict (decrease of arteriole bp causes vasoconstriction of arteriole)
    -sympathetic control
    strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict, lower GFR and urine production, redirecting blood flow to visceral areas.
    -hormonal mechanisms
    rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogenII to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure.
    promotes water and NA reabsorption.
    Stimulates sensation of thirst.


  5. Describe who the nephron regulates water excretionyellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.


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