Advanced Fundamentals - Estim

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88 terms

Frequency

what is the number of cycles or pulses per second

Alternating Current

what is continuous and bidirectional flow of charged particles (+ and -)

Interpulse Interval

what time between pulses

Cathode

what is the negative pole

Rise time

what is the time it takes current to go from zero to peak during a phase

Premodulated Current

what is similar to IFC but uses only one channel

Amplitude

what is magnitude of the current or voltage

Frequency Modulation

what is usually referred to a sweep

Anode

what is the positive pole

Pulse Duration

what is the time from the beginning of the first phase to the end of the last phase of the pulse

Polarity

what is property of having two oppositely charged conductors

Pulsed Current

what is electrical current delivered discontinuously

Impedance

what is total frequency-dependent opposition to the current flow

Direct Current

what is used for inotophoresis and stimulating denervated muscles to contract

Interferential Current

what is a waveform produced by the interference of two medium frequency sinusoidal AC's

Wavelength

what is the duration of one cycle

Duty Cycle

what is the ratio of on time to total cycle time

Ramp up

what is the time it takes current to go from zero to maximum amplitude for any one on time

Amplitude Modulation

what is usually referred to as scan

Ohm's Law

what is the relationship between voltage (V), electrical current (I) and resistance (R)

1:2

If a pulse were on for 20 seconds and off for 20 seconds, this would be a what duty cycle

1:1

If a pulse were on for 20 seconds and off for 20 seconds, this would be a what of:off time

5000

with IFC and the frequencies of 5000Hz and 6000Hz what would be the carrier frequency

1000

with IFC and the frequencies of 5000Hz and 6000Hz what would be the carrier frequency

Charge

what has an abreviation of (Q)

Charge

what is it called when matter has a positive charge, a negative charge, or is electrically neutral

Charge

what is measured in Coulombs (C)

Polarity

what frees electrons flow from an area of excess electrons to an area deficient in electrons

Electrical Current

what is measured in Amperes (A) and has an abreviation of (I)

Electrical Current

what is the flow or movement of charged particles through a conductor following an applied electrical field

Voltage

what has an abreviation of (V)

Voltage

what is electrical force moving charged particles through a conductor between two regions or points

Voltage

what may also be called potential difference

Resistance

what has an abreviation of (R)

Resistance

what is the property of the conductor that resists the flow of charged particles

Resistance

what is measured in Ohms

Impedance

what has an abreviation of Z

Impedance

what is a more accurate descriptor of the relationship between voltage and current than resistance

Ohm's Law

what is (V= I x R)

Direct Current

what does DC stand for

Direct Current

what is continuous and unidirectional flow of charged particles (either + or -)

Direct Current

what is occansionally used with wound healing

Alternating Current

what does AC stand for

Premodulated Current

what has waves that interfere in the machine and are then delivered through 2 electrodes, 1 channel

Premodulated Current

what doesn't have the same benefits as interferential current

Russian Protocol

what is used to increase muscle force

Frequency

what is another name for Rate

Pulse Duration/Phase Duration

what is another name for Width

Phase Duration

what is the duration of one phase of the pulse

Comfort of stimulation

what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control

Less skin impedence

what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control

Less chemical changes under the electrode

what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control

Better discrimination

what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control

Interphase interval

what is the time between phases of a pulse

Decay Time

what is the time it takes from peak to decrease to zero during a phase

Ramp down

what is the time it takes current to go from maximum to zero amplitude for any one on time

Ramp up/Ramp down

what allows the patient to acclimate to the stimulation

Subsensory to sensory to motor effects

what is the transition of acclimation to the sensory

Symmetrical biphasic pulsed

what type of estim is used for muscle strengthening or muscle reeducation or muscle spasm or chronic edema

TENS (monophasic/biphasic)

what type of estim is used in conventional or accupuncture

AC

what type of estim is IFC or premod

HVPC

what type of estim is used for tissue healing or acute edem

Conventional

what type of TENS is used for pain control via gate theory of pain

Accupuncture

what type of TENS is used for pain control via endogenous opiate release

DC monophasic

what type of TENS is used for iontophoresis or denervated muscle

Burst Mode

what is a series of pulses delivered in an "envelope" as singe pulse

Resting potential

what is the difference inelectrical potential across the cell membrane when information is not being transmitted

Depolarize

what membrane potential becomes less negative than the resting potential

Repolarize

what membrane potential returns to more negative state & resting potential is restored

opening of Na channels pulls Na in to the cell by the negative charge inside and because of the larger concentration of Na outside the cell

what happens during the Depolarization of an action potential

Channels close and K channels open; K is pushed out of the cell because of the large concentration of K inside of the cell and the positive charge inside the cell

what happens during the Repolarization of an action potential

Absolute refractory period

what is it when the membrane is depolarized, and it is not possible to create another AP

Relative refractory period

what is it when after depolarization occurs, a short hyperpolarization period occurs

Relative refractory period

what is a stronger than normal AP that would be required to produce another AP

AP propagation/conduction

what is AP triggered in adjacent nerves and along the neuron

Afferent

what type of nerve is Sensory nerves

Efferent

what type of nerve is Motor nerves

Afferent

what nerves submit sensory info to the brain

Efferent

what nerves submit motot info to the muscles

Nerve diameter and myelination

what does propagation speed depend on

Strength-Duration Curve

what is the minimum amount of electrical current required to depolarize the nerve and produce and AP in a specific type of nerve

Sensory nerves

what type of nerves carry lower current amplitude and shorter pulse duration depolarize

Motor nerves

what type of nerves carry higher amplitude and longer pulses are required to depolarize

Pain-transmitting C fibers

what type of nerves carry high amplitude and longer pulses are required to depolarize

Accommodation

what is decreased response to same amplitude of nerve stimulation

Motor nerves

innervated muscles contract via depolarization of what

Muscle cell membrane

denervated muscles contract via depolarization of what

Ionic effects

what is DC monophasic waveforms, not biphasic waveforms

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