writers focus on novels
combined elements of folk tale & realism by focusing on a marvelous happening, that is at the same time, conceivable.
In a novelle, developed characters are presented and brought into a conflict that reveals their characteristics.
Moved from philosophical short fiction and returned to romantic folktale. Focused on subjective inner world (dreams, hallucinations) and characters' reactions to events, rather than events themselves.
emphasized the subjectivity of the teller; said that value exists in the external world, but only b/c it first existed in the teller's mind.
Washington Irvine's "Rip Van Winkle"; focused on tone & teller of folkloric tale. Could be argued that the short story started in Irvine's sketchbook.
horror stories driven by characters' emotions & though processes. Attempted to convey a single impression of a mood, emotion, or situation to a reader.
Built short story on active relationship between character & circumstances; moral situation at the center; ambiguity comes from combining old, allegorical conventions w/ new,realistic techniques.