World History 201

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Evidence

What historians use in an attempt to reconstruct the past, often only bits or fragments remain. Evidence is divided into two categories: Artifacts and Texts

Artifactual

Any man-made material object that survives from the past. 1) monuments or buildings 2) art depicting past events, customs, gods, etc. 3) objects such as tools weapons or clothing

Textual

These are the most important types of evidence, can be anything from a complete book, to an inscription on a building, to writing on a coin

Primary Documents

The surviving records of eyewitnesses in the original languages.

Limitations of History

We cannot directly observe any past events beyond living memory. We therefore must rely of small fragments of information (the bulk having been lost) which may not tell the whole story.

Reductionism

The problem of selection and simplification of evidence. There is often too much information to handle and the student of history must decide what is of the most importance. Complex phenomenon into simple explanations.

Events

A historical event is a discreet past occurrence which can be defined in time and space. Such as a battle, death of a king, or writing of a book.

Processes

Represents patterns of change over long periods of time. Such as the spread of Christianity.

Historic

Refers to societies which possess writing.

Prehistoric

Refers to societies before writing

Ancient

before 500 BC

Classical

500 BC to 500 AD

Medieval

500 AD to 1500 AD

Temple

centers of creating, preserving and transmitting sacred symbols. Meeting place. Acted as a University/place to learn astronomy and sciences.

Guardian Figures

angels surround the throne of God. They fulfill roles in heaven.

Astronomy/Calendar and Temples

Sacred time. Cyclical time, temporal center of cosmos, calendar of festivals, east and rising of the sun, astronomical art in the temple.

Center

geographical center of the earth. Place where heaven and earth meet.

Circumbulation

To walk around something. Ritual act, center attention on sacred things.

Cosmic Mountain

ziggurat. mountain where God dwells: Eden, Sinai, Zion/Jerusalem

Site of Creation

foundations of the earth at the temple. Took 7 years to build the temple and seven days to create the earth

Sacred Waters

Abyss=waters of chaos=primordial matter. Waters of life flow from the temple. 4 rivers of Eden: Gihon

Tree of Life

Symbol across many cultures. Produces food without having to kill the source.

Celestial Temple

earthly temple is designed and founded by God. Parallels heavenly temple.

Order vs Chaos

Order -Way things operate, designed by God. Chaos - When that order breaks down.

Microcosm

furniture in temple represents parts of cosmos. Earth=stones Air=incense Fire=light Water=brazen sea. "small world" = symbolic models of the cosmos/ creation

Purification

ritual washings to enter temple. Parallels baptism and morality.

Rigveda

Indian/ hindu text like psalms. We read a creation myth from there. Primordial text.

Myth

a sacred story that deals with relation of humans and gods, describes foundation of the community and establishes a purpose of community.

Cosmogony

story of the creation of the cosmos, the universe. Creation narratives .

Cosmology

a description of the cosmos

Primordial Water

chaotic, formless, unorganized matter "the deep", sometimes associated with sea water. It is water with NO life. Fifth element (other four are fire, air, water, and earth)

"Unknown god"

the god who created all other gods.

Creation by breath/wind/spirit

God breathes on the dark formless "deep" and creation occurs. Infusion of divine breath/spirit to make alive

Division into opposites

light/dark, above/below, water/land- opposition in all things. Division of primordial matter into opposite pairs

Theomachy

Marduk and the primordial combat myth. Original war of the gods at foundation of creation; struggle between good and evil for control

Temple as site of creation

temple marks site of creation. The Garden of Eden was a temple./ reenact creation story

Social Organization

A group of people interacting together. This was taking place as people began to work as a civilization, rather than working as hunters/gatherers. fundamental need - obtain food. Beyond family, you organize yourself based on food you're looking for.

Migratory

those forced to periodically move in order to obtain food

Hunter Gatherer

food collectors, migrate, seasonal patterns

Nomads

specialized in herding domesticated animals, also migrated seasonally

Sedentary

forced to live in one place in order to obtain food

Agriculturists

farming domesticated plants

Urban

obtain food by NOT directly farm themselves, but by trading or taxing farmers

Neolithic

transformation of human groups from food collectors to food producers, 1st in near east in 8th mill. BC

Domestication (plants and animals)

began systematically planting, protecting, and harvesting plants, hybridization and selective breeding, same idea with animals

Origins of Civilization

Based on the tools they used.

Subsistence

Farming to provide only enough food for your needs (no surplus). If any famine, you die

Agricultural surplus

Waste, population growth, storage, exchange (trade)

Economic specialization

Increased efficiency technological innovation, exchange. Created classes, rich vs. poor

Temple City

The city is built around a temple, that is the defining element of the layout.

Temple and Palace

Priests and Kings

Hierocentric = Centered on the Holy

Naocentric = Centered on the Temple

Social Stratification

Priests and warriors denominated society as a whole since they used much of the agricultural surplus to ask the gods to continue to provide fertility to farmers and the warriors protected the communities. Development of classes based on spirituality/economics/race/politics. RICH and POOR

Six Primary civilizations

fertile river valleys, original, didn't borrow ideas from other civilizations. Identify on a map...Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, Yellow River, Peru, Mesoamerica.

Shaman/Shamanism

Witch doctor, specialist in communicating with and seeing the world of spirits, divines the future

Carmel Cave

(Israel) found tools, animal bones, paintings, Gradation of Holiness. Symbolize use of caves with stone age people

Lascaux Cave

(France) one of the oldest caves known. animals/hunting. communal life in outer chambers of cave, more sacred activities as you move to the innermost chamber

Relation of caves, temples and tombs

Caves were the first temple, passage to the underworld

Paleolithic hunting ritual as sacrifice

hunt=kill=sacrifice (to make sacred) Humans must kill to eat, make killing of animal sacred to cope with it

Temple of the Leopards

very early hunting temple in southern Israel.diagrams of leopard to attract spirit of leopard.

Tombs and Ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)

ancestors go to live with gods, tombs act as a place where families can regather

burial mounds (Rujm al-Hiri)

Central mound, tomb, mark sacred space

upright/raised stone (maṣṣēbāh)

pillar or raised stone, signifying worship. Stones may represent gods

aligned stones (Gezer)

upright placed stones - not natural, outlined with little rocks. Holy of Holies there, place of worship. ex) Joshua crossed the river and set up the stones there.

stone circles (Gil-gal)

After the conquest of Canaan, Gil-gal remained a holy place where Samuel judged Israel (I Sam 7:16) and Saul was crowned king.

Dolmens

also known as a portal tomb or portal grave and is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table).

memorial

stones that commemorate holy experiences, theophanies for example

theophany

refers to the appearance of a deity to a human, or to a divine disclosure.It refers to the manifestation of God to man; the sensible sign by which the presence of God is revealed. Only a small number of theophanies are found in the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Old Testament

Hitite

Indo-European herders who migrated form central Eurasia to Anatolia (Turkey) in 2000 BC. Empire collapsed in 1200 BC from attacks-Hittite were the most powerful state in west Asia ...
-their strength came from rich minerals such as silver, lead, copper ...
-they marked their resources by controlling trade routes ...
-their iron workings gave them military advantage ...
-they used cuneiform as well as hieroglyphic writing ...
-they embraced west Asia's religion/myth and Babylon's laws ...
-an important contribution was exchanging elements from old cultures through trade

Phoenician

red men" (1500-330 BC) - descendants of original Canaanites, lived in Lebanon
-they were international traders: glass, metal, dye, fabrics, cedar
-many of their texts were destroyed, and religious beliefs cannot be determined in detail
-Egyptian influence visible in Phoenician art
-Phoenicia served as a major transmitter of Afrocriatre culture throughout eastern Mediterranean, especially Greece. (introduced math, astronomy, alphabet, arts, religion)

Alphabet

Phoenician's invented 1st system of writing, consisting of 22 signs, each depicting a consonantal sound.
-it was easy, accepted in west Asia, used in trade ...
-Greeks added vowels that are now used in Europe

Judah

Formed from 2 southern tribes of Israel
-retained independence from Assyrian threat until 586 BC when Neo-Babylonian Chaldeans destroyed temple and occupied Jerusalem and transported most skilled Jews to Babylon.
-after liberation of Cyrus the Great in 538 BC, captives returned to Judah to rebuild their temple.
-next 2 centuries, lived under Persian rule, then subject to Syria after conquest of Alexander the Great.
-then small independence under Maccabees (167-63 BC)
-homeland incorporated into Roman empire

Israel

Hebrews filtered into Canaan and in 1025 BC the independent tribes formed the Kingdom of Israel. ...
-two powerful kings: David and Solomon ...
-10 tribes secede in 9th century and regrouped as independent kingdom of Israel

Polytheist

Worship of many gods

Canaanite

Oldest group of people-Pre OT

Israelite

Old testament Jews about 1200 BCE - 70 CE

Jewish

Rabbinic Judaism

Patriarchal

Time of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob

Canaan

inland people, grow herds and run vineyards

Phoenicia

maritime culture. Known for starting the alphabet.

Metalwork

Canaanites were the metal workers

Maritime

Sea culture

Ugarit

biggest Canaanite library, major source for understanding Canaanite culture, city in N. Syria that was destroyed by the Sea Peoples in 1180 BC. Its destruction allowed for its preservation.

Jericho (Tower)

BIG ancient Canaanite stone tower uncovered in an oasis by the Jordan River. Could have been a worship site. Earliest temple we have in land of Israel?

En Gedi (Temple)

Near Dead sea with a small spring overlooking dead sea, Spring was covered in a grove and the temple was set a little higher on Mountain.

Gezer (Standing Stones)

Halfway between Jerusalem and the coast of the Mediterranean sight of a polytheist temple.

Tel Qasile (Philistine Temple)

Best preserved temple of the time had two central pillars to hold up roof as in the Samson story.

Middle Bronze Age

2000-1600 BC

Execration Text

sculpture that is written on, then smashed; used as a way to curse the people whose names are written on the pot/sculpture

Melchizedek

"My King is Righteous", King of Jerusalem, priest of El Elyon (God Most High)

Abraham

Nomad paid "bounty" (tithe) from raids to Melchizedek

Melchizedek's Temple?

probably would have had a temple but no remains have been discovered/ assumed temple because if you have a priest, you have a temple

Arad

Temple, 1800 BC (Bronze age) Structurally like Solomon's, could be similar to Melchizedek's as well.

Psalm 110

Psalm of David- Follow God and you will triumph

Hebrews 7

A "forever" priest, king of peace. We learn that Abraham gave 1/10 of everything he had, which made him wealthy and great.

DSS 11Q13 Melchizedek

Melchizedek will set them free on day of Atonement

Nile

-source: Central Africa ...
-4000 miles long River ...
-provided mineral/nutrient Egyptians exploited to make arable land ...
Lower Egypt delta of rich marshy plains
-Annual flooding carried away salt and left rich alluvium, world's riches agriculture! ...
-Unified Egypt ...
-Fostered communication and trade

Theocracy

Ruled by the gods

Pharaoh

autocratic, political and religious control
-High priest, planned and directed economy
-sole owners of land
-state monopoly over trade
-rule by the High Priest or King in claims of ruling by God

Pyramids

- Housed Royal Mummies
-First was Zoser's step pyramid 2650 B.C.
-The modified "true pyramid" appeared during 4th dynasty
-largest located at Giza
-Amazing engineering feat, high cost and high labor
-Reminder that Pharaohs still played central role, even after death

New Kingdom

-1552-1069 B.C.-Theban Brothers, Kamose and Ahmose, expelled Hyksos ...
-Militaristic Pharaohs abandoned Egypt's isolation policy ...
-1490 BC forged great empire into Sedan &West Africa

Akhenaten

Monotheistic religious reformer (1367-1350 BCE

Amarna

Akhenaten moves capital here

Ramses II

Greatest of all the pharaohs (or so he thought). Greatest builder of ancient Egypt, leader during exodus(1290-1223 BCE

Amon-Re

main god, Sun god. Sometimes called Amon, sometimes called Re

Pyramid texts

Earliest religious texts- on walls of tombs

Hyksos

Foreign rulers, brought new technologies. Came in during the Second intermediate period of Egypt. Controlled lower Egypt. Eventually expelled.

Chariot Warfare

Brought from Syria-took 2 people to control but Kings are depicted as riding alone.

Hatshepsut

Female pharaoh, ruled for 22 years, 18th dynasty, was co-regent with her step-son, during her reign their was great stability and peace, took on the image of man even wearing the fake beard that most pharaohs wore

Thutmosis III

Great conqueror of Canaan and Syria, Hated step mother Hatshepsut

Book of the dead

Taught that would would survive after death- inside tomb

Four intellectual revolutions

Writing (Egypt and Mesopotamia), alphabet (cananites/phoenicians), printing (china/germany)and computer (usa). Made spreading of ideas easier with each advancement.

Sacred Way

synonymous with "Way of the Lord". The pathway that leads to sacred places.

• temenos wall

A sacred enclosure wall that marks sacred spaces. It separates the sacred and profane space. esp. Karnak in Egypt

Boundary Markers

Sacred spaces are marked by pillars, stones, or obelisks.

Sacred Water

Sacred water includes waters of creation (referred to as "the deep"), water of life, and waters of purification.

Gateway

Marks a transition to a sacred space.

Courtyard

synonymous with "the world". It is a place of sacrifice.

Altar

There are different types of altars and sacrifices in different parts of the temple complex. Blood sacrifices would take place on an altar in the outer portion of the temple complex (blood is messy).

columned hall

Also known as a hypostyle hall. The original columns were made of wood. Thus, the columns represented trees, marking the "garden of gods".

purification

in order to proceed through degrees of holiness you need to become more and more pure. ex) Sacred Lake.

sacred robes

transition

Holy of Holies

"Most Holy Place"
-Perfect cube of 10 cubits ...
-Blue/Purple/Scarlet veil separated from Holy Place
-Fulfilled cultic role of images ...
-Easily transported ...
-Occasionally carried into battle ...
-Contained sacred relics (Tablet of Law, Manna, Aaron's rod)

presentation to the gods "presentation scene"

This is where a king is pictured in front of the Gods, gaining power and divine right to govern the people. This is usually carved into stone.

embracing the gods

God and King embrace each other.

procession

Occurs on the holy days. The image is removed from the Holy of Holies and placed in a miniature temple box. This box is then put on a miniature bark and carried by the priests. The masses gather to view the procession.

buildings

how we know about the past, if we want to learn about Canaanite religion, we can examine these

Tombs

examine to know about Canaanite religion

Art

examine to know about Canaanite Reilgion

Texts

examine to know about Canaanite religio

fertility cult

religion, rituals, and prayers to worship fertility goddess to be able to reproduce (kids, crops, animals, etc.) water=key ingredient

syncretism

equating Gods w/ different societies, different names for exsentially the same God; accept other Gods & have power in own domain

El

The Hebrew word referring to God. (i.e. Beth-el = House of God) "Head god" of the Canaanites (can relate to Cronus in Greek mythology)

Baal

Canaanite God; Lord. Son of El, but the one the Canaanites worship the most. He's the one who runs things.

Asherah

Canaanite Goddess; fertility goddess-crops, livestock; queen of heaven. Also associated with "grove" and/or "trees" (to represent her).

human sacrifice

key part of worship. "passing children through fire." Abraham offering Isaac

Amarna Tablets

Dipomatic letters from Egyptian vassals to the king of Egypt. Written in Akkadian. c. 1360-1340 BCE

Exodus

Around 1250 or 1200 BCE. It took around 12 generations to settle in Jerusalem starting with initial departure from Egypt.

Ramses II

Pharaoh of the Exodus.

Merneptah

Egyptian king who claimed he killed of Israel. The Merneptah Stele is a stone that first mentions the people of Israel. Name of people shown by man and woman, strokes mean many people. No land mentioned because Israelites were wandering in the wilderness

Jebusites

Canaanite inhabitants of Jerusalem before it was conquered by King David around 1,000 BCE

Adoni-Zedek

"My Lord is righteous" Amorite King of Jerusalem, defeated and killed by Joshua at the battle of Gibeon.

Joshua

one of the spies for Israel; "assistant" to Moses; after the death of Moses he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan

Judges

warriors, administrators, prophets, judges; temporary as the times required

United Monarchy

Israel is major power in Syria/Canaan; economic trade power under Solomon; dynastic marriages lead to cultic corruption

• Divided Monarchy

Judah (south) vs. Israel (north); weak political/military power; dynastic succession (N is fragmented by plots, murders, coups, S is House of David); social and economic (N is richer, larger, more powerful, more important internationally, and social distinctions increase between rich and poor); religion (N has temples at Bethel and Dan and has bull idols, S has Temple at Jerusalem and other cultic sites) major problem with syncretism with Baalism

Kingship

permanent and hereditary; prophetic designation; popular acclamation; dynastic descent; the evils of kingship

Trade

Saul (united tribes), David (expanded empire/war), and Solomon (trading)...how you become rich. how ideas and information are spread.

Samaria

fall of Samaria (721 BC); vassal to the Assyrians, conquered by Assyrians; Samaritans as survivors; Judea conquered 703-701; Jerusalem is spared and pays tribute/becomes vasal. Capital of Northern Kingdom Israel.

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