Name six types of cell-to-cell communication in animals. How do these types vary?
direct, autocrine, paracrine, neural, endocrine, exocrine
in the distance that the chemcial messengers travel from one cell to another.
Chemical messengers involved in _____ cell signaling must travel through both aqueous and lipid environments. Thus _____ and _____ chemical messengers face different challenges during cell signaling.
Chemical messengers involved in indirect cell signaling must travel through both _____ and _____ environments. Thus hydrophobic and hydrophilic chemical messengers face different challenges during cell signaling.
Hydrophilic messengers can travel between adjacent cells via _____, but more complex mechanisms are required for indirect cell-to-cell communication between cells that are not adjacent.
_____ messengers can travel between adjacent cells via gap junctions, but more complex mechanisms are required for _____ cell-to-cell communication between cells that are not adjacent.
Indirect cell signaling involves what three steps? The mechanisms involved in these steps differ depending on what?
1) Release of the messenger from the signaling cell.
2) Transport through he extracellular environment.
3) Communication with the target cell.
Whether the the signaling molecules is hydrophobic or hydrophilic.
_____ messengers are often peptides.
Hydrophilic messengers are often _____.
Hydrophilic messengers are often peptides. They are released from the signaling cell by _____ and bind to _____ on the target cell.
Peptide hormones are often synthesized as what? Where are they processed and when are they released?
Large preprohormones that are processed within the signaling cell prior to the release of the active hormone.
Hydrophobic messengers are synthesized on _____ and _____ out of the signaling cell. _____ proteins transport them to target cells where they bind to _____ receptors. Some hydrophobic messengers also bind to _____ receptors.
_____ messengers are synthesized on demand and diffuse out of the signaling cell. Carrier proteins transport them to target cells where they bind to intracellular receptors. Some _____ messengers also bind to transmembrane receptors.
_____ messengers are often steriods.
Hydrophobic messengers are often _____.
_____ are derived from cholesterol.
Steroids are derived from _____.
Name the three primary vertebrate steroid hormones.
The primary vertebrate ______ are minerlocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and reproductive hormones.
The primary invertebrate _____ are the ecdysteroids.
The primary invertebrate steroid hormones are the _____.
Amines can be _____, _____, or _____. These messengers are derived from hydrophilic _____, and are often hydrophilic messengers, but the amine _____ hormones are hydrophobic.
paracrines, hormones, or neurotransmitters
amino acids or peptides
The amine thyroid hormones are _____.
_____ can be paracrines, hormones, or neurotransmitters. These messengers are derived from hydrophilic amino acids or peptiedss, and are often hydrophilic messengers, but the _____ thyroid hormones are hydrophobic.
Chemical messengers involved in _____ cell signaling bind specifically to specific receptor proteins on or in the target cell. Thus, chemical messengers act as specific _____ for those receptors.
_____ chemical messengers can interact with intracellular receptors or transmembrane receptors. _____ chemical messengers can only interact with transmembrane receptors.
Ligand-receptor binding obeys the law of _____, and exhibits _____. The _____ describes the tightness of binding between a ligand and a receptor.
Ligand-receptor signaling must be _____ for signaling to be effective.
Signal termination can be accomplished in a variety of ways, including.....
Removal of the ligand.
Removal of the receptor from the membrane.
Inhibition of th receptor.
Inhibition of downstream signaling pathways.
Each step in a _____ can amplify the signal.
signal transduction pathway
Each step in a signal transduction pathway can _____ the signal.
Signal transduction via _____ channels is relatively simple and direct, but the other signal transduction pathways have many steps.
_____ receptors regulate gene transcription.
Intracellular receptors regulate _____.
_____ activate intracellular phosphorylation cascades.
Receptor-enzymes activate intracellular _____ cascades.
G-protein-coupled receptors interact with _____ G proteins.
G proteins can signal to _____ or to _____ that activate small molecules call second messengers.
G proteins can signal to ion channels or to amplifier enzymes that activate small molecules call _____.
G-protein-coupled receptors use what four different second messengers? Each of these messengers links to what?
Ca2+, cGMP, inositol phosphates, cAMP
A different signal transduction cascade.
Cells have numerous types of transmembrane and intracellular receptors, and thus several signal transduction _____ can be activated at any given time. Thus, signal transduction _____ in living cells operate as complex _____ that integrate the various signals and convert them into appropriate _____.
The organization of endocrine systems varies among animals. Endocrine communication in the _____ generally involved neurohormones, whereas hormones are more common in _____.
Endocrine systems are responsible for.....
maintaining homeostasis and regulating growth, development, and reproduction.
_____ systems allow the maintenance of homeostasis (e.g., control of blood glucose by insulin).
_____ allows explosive responses.
Positive feedback allows _____.
Hormones are often grouped into _____ that allow extremely precise homeostatic regulation (e.g., insulin and glucagon).
Hormones can also work _____ or _____ (e.g., glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine).
Hormones can regulate _____ by negative feedback, in regulatory loops of varying complexity (e.g., the hormones of the vertebrate anterior pituitary).
Name an example of how hormones can regulate other hormones by negative feedback, in regulatory loops of varying complexity.
hormones of the vertebrate anterior pituitary
Hormones can also be involved in _____ regulation (e.g., oxytocin).
Hormones can also be involved in positive feedback regulation (e.g., _____).
Hormones can also work additively or synergistically (e.g., _____).
glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine
Hormones are often grouped into antagonistic pairs that allow extremely precise homeostatic regulation (e.g., _____).
insulin and glucagon
Negative feedback systems allow the maintenance of homeostasis (e.g., _____).
control of blood glucose by insulin
The vertebrate stress response is an example of what?
Coordination of physiological functions by multiple signaling systems.
The vertebrate _____ is an example of coordination of physiological functions by multiple signaling systems.