CH8 The Information-Processing Approach
|information-processing approach||a cognitive approach in which people manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. central to this approach are the cognitive processes of memory and thinking.|
|encoding||the process by which information gets into memory|
|automaticity||the ability to process information with little or no effort|
|strategy construction||creation of a new procedure of processing information. eg. strategy of stopping periodically to take stock of what they have read so far.|
|metacognition||cognition about cognition, or "knowing about knowing", eg. she modifies her concept of "animal" to include her new knowledge|
|attention||the focusing of mental resources|
|selective attention||focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant|
|divided attention||concentrating on more than one activity at the same time|
|sustained attention||the ability to maintain attention over and extended period of time, also called vigilance.|
|executive attention||involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.|
|memory||the retention of information over time. involves encoding, storage and retrieval.|
|rehearsal||the conscious repetition of information over time to increase the length of time it stays in memory|
|levels of processing theory||the processing of memory occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory.|
|elaboration||the extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding.|
|constructing images||mental image of a memory.|
|verbal elaboration||worked better for fifth graders than for the second graders.|
|organization||memories organized in a meaningful way such as hierarchically or outline it.|
|chunking||grouping or packing information into higher order units that can be remembered as single units.|
|sensory memory||holds information from the world in its original form for only an instant. visual, auditory and other sensation.|
|short term memory||a limited capacity memory system in which information is retained at least 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed, in which case it can be retained longer.|
|memory span||the number of digits an individual can report back without error in a single presentation.|
|working memory||a three-part system that holds information temporarily as a person performs a task. a kind of mental workbench that lets individuals manipulate, assemble, and construct information when they make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language.|
|Atkinson-Shiffrin model||a model of memory that involves a sequence of three stages: sensory memory (sensory input), short-term memory(may be rehearsed), and long-term memory(may be retrieved).|
|Baddeley's view of working memory||phonological loop and visuospatial working memory which working memory function independently , central executive.|
|phonological loop (Baddeley)||specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language: acustic code decays in a few seconds, rehearsal which allows individuals to repeat the words in the phonological store.|
|visuospatial working memory (Baddeley)||stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery.|
|central executive (Baddeley)||integrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory but also from long-term memory.|
|long-term memory||divided into:1) Nondeclarative Memory (implicit). 2) Declarative Memory (explicit): a. Episodic Memory. b) Semantic Memory|
|declarative memory||the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated. explicit, knowing that...|
|nondeclarative memory||procedural knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations. cannot be consciously recollected, at least not the form of specific events or facts. implicit, knowing how...|
|episodic memory||the retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings: events, episodes, time. deliberate retrieval process. education is irrelevant. intelligence is irrelevant. "i remember". admissible in court.|
|semantic memory||an individual's general knowledge about the world, independent of the individual's identity with the past: facts, ideas, concepts. information learned. automatic retrieval process. intelligence is relevant. "i know". inadmissible in court.|
|network theories||describe how information in memory is organized and connected. they emphasize nodes in the memory network that stands for labels or concepts.|
|schema theories||based on the premise that when we construct information, we fit it into information that already exists in our mind. claims that long-term memory searches are not very exact. when retrieve information-may fill in the gaps between with variety or accuracies and inaccuracies.|
|schema||information-concepts, knowledge, information about events-that already exists in a person's mind|
|script||a schema for and event. often contain information about physical feature, people, and typical occurrences. based on past experiences.|
|fuzzy trace theory||states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: 1) verbtim memory trace, precise details.(how many cats and dogs? preschool student are better). 2)fuzzy trace, or gist.which is the central idea of the information. (are there more cats than dogs?older children are better)|
|serial position effect||retrieval: the principle that recall is better for items at the beginning (primacy effect) and the end (recency effect) of a list than items in the middle. applies to lists and events|
|encoding specificity principle||the principle that associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues.|
|cue-dependent forgetting||retrieval failure caused by a lack of effective retrieval cues. you don't possess the cues "fill-in-the-blanks and multiple-choice.|
|interference theory||states that we forget not because we actually lose memories from storage but because other information gets in the way of what we are trying to remember.|
|decay theory||new learning involves the creation of a neurochemical memory trace, which will eventually disintegrate. Thus, decay theory suggests that the passage of time is responsible for forgetting.|
|expertise and learning||1)detecting features and meaningful patterns of information.|
2)accumulating more content knowledge and organizing it in a manner that shows understanding of the topic.
3)retrieving important aspects of knowledge with little effort
4)adapting and approach to new situations.
5)using effective strategies.
|strategies|| 1)spreading out learning time and consolidating learning (into long-term memory).|
2)asking themselves questions. (what is the meaning, why is it important...)
3)taking notes (summarizing, outlining, using concept maps).
4)using a study system PQ4: Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review.
|what determines whether or not someone becomes and expert|| practice and motivation.|
|Expertise and teaching|| Pedagogical content knowledge.|
Technology, expertise, and teaching
|Expertise and teaching||Monitoring and reflecting on one's current or recent thoughts (knowledge about task, goals, strategies how to solve problems)|
|Metacogintion activity||Students consciously adapt and manage their thinking strategies during problem solving and purposeful thinking|
|metamemory||The knowledge of how memory works.|
|Theory of mind||awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others. Views the child as "a thinker who is trying to explain, predict, and understand people's thoughts, feelings, and utterances". mindblindness -autistic children have difficulty in developing a theory of mind, especially in understanding other's beliefs and emotions|
|theory of mind(2-3 years old)||1)perceptions-others may not see what he sees in front of his eyes. 2)emotions-distinction. 3)desires|
|theory of mind(4-5 years old)||Understands false beliefs|
|Theory of mind(middle and late childhood)||Awareness that the same event can be open to multiple interpretations|
|theory of mind(adolescence)||Have and increase capacity to monitor and manage cognitive resources to effectively meet the demands of a learning task.|
|good information-processing model||1)children are taught by parents or teachers to use a particular strategy.|
2)teachers may demonstrate similarities and differences in multiple strategies in a particular domain, such as math, which motivates students to see shared features of different strategies.
3)students recognize the general benefits of using strategies, which produces general strategy knowledge.
|concepts||Group of objects, events, and characteristics on the basis of common properties concepts help us to simplify, summarize, and organize information.|
|Promoting concept formation||1)learning about the features of concepts|
2)defining concepts and providing examples-define, clarify, examples, additional examples
3)hierarchical categorization and concept maps-ex. Dinosaurs are reptiles, triceratops are dinosaurs, therefore triceratops are reptiles.
4)hypothesis testing-specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
5)prototype matching-individuals decide whether an item is a member of a category.