The American Republic Chapter 2

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joint-stock companies

These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.

charter colonies

a colony in which stockholders were granted rights and privileges by the English monarch

proprietary colonies

colonies owned by persons who had been given a royal charter to own the land

Puritans

A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.

Separatists

English Protestants who would not accept allegiance in any form to the Church of England. Included the Pilgrims and Quakers

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was written by the Pilgrims and signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower setting up a government for the Plymouth colony.

John Carver

Person who arranged financial backing and found a seaworthy ship for the Pilgrims

Plymouth

Colony settled by the Pilgrims in 1620. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.

John Winthrop

As first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony he was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State, believing that the Puritans were too powerful. He was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

first written constitution in America

New Netherland

Dutch colony that later became New York

Peter Minuit

Dutch colonist who bought Manhattan from the Native Americans for the equivalent of $24 (1580-1638)

patroons

Wealthy landowners in the New Netherlands who got large estates by bringing 50 settlers.

Sir George Carteret

one of the proprietors who was given the southern part of the Duke of York's colony; he and his partner, Lord John Berkeley, named their colony New Jersey

Lord John Berkeley

co-founder of New Jersey

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, and under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)

New Sweden

settlement that became the colony of Delaware

George Calvert

Founder of Maryland. His title was Lord Baltimore. His son was Cecilius Calvert.

Cecilius Calvert

This Lord Baltimore established a colony for Toman Catholics.

indigo

a plant grown in the southern colonies that yields a deep blue dye

James Oglethorpe

An English General who founded the colony of Georgia in 1733 as place for Englishmen in debt to start over.

New England Colonies

Most of these colonies were originally charter colonies.

Middle Colonies

These colonies had original settlements by the Dutch and Swedes.

Southern Colonies

One of its colonies was founded for Roman Catholics.

Massachusetts

This colony was heavily populated during "the Great Migration."

Maryland

This colony passed an Act of Toleration guaranteeing religious freedom.

Georgia

This colony had Savannah as its first settlement.

Delaware

This colony was first settled by the Swedes.

Connecticut

This colony was settled by people from Massachusetts Bay who wanted more land.

Pilgrims

Plymouth colony was settled by this group.

Squanto

Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.

Miles Standish

the "Stranger", a non pilgrim, who help the Plymouth Pilgrims.

Charter Colonies

Joint-stock companies were used to form these types of colonies.

Separatists

The Pilgrims belonged to this group.

Germany

The Pennsylvania Dutch came from this country.

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