Chap.03

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Illness and Injury Prevention

Evaluation

Collection of the methods. skills, and activities necessary to determine whether a service or program is needed, likely to be used, conducted as planned, and actually helps people.

Goals

The end points toward which intervention efforts are directed. A statement of changes sought in an injury problem, stated in broad terms.

Haddon Matrix

A framework developed by William Haddon, Jr, MD as a method to generate ideas about injury prevention that address the host, agent, and environment and their impact in the pre-event, event, and post-event phases of the injury process.

Implementation Plan

A strategy for carrying out an intervention. Includes goals, objectives, activities, evaluation measures, resource assessment, and time line.

Injuries

Any unintentional or intentional damage to the body resulting from acute exposure to thermal, mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen.

Injury Risk

A potentially hazardous situation that puts people in a position in which they could be harmed.

Injury Surveillance

The ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of injury data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.

Intentional Injuries

Injuries that are purposefully inflicted by a person on himself or herself or on another person. Examples include suicide or attempted suicide, homicide, rape, assault, domestic abuse, elder abuse, and child abuse.

Interventions

Specific prevention measures or activities designed to meet a program objective. Categories include education/behavior change, enforcement/legislation, engineering/technology, and economic incentives.

Morbidity

Number of nonfatally injured or disabled people. Usually expressed as a rate, meaning the number of nonfatal injuries in a certain population in a given time period divided by the size of the population.

Mortality

Deaths caused by injury and disease. Usually expressed as a rate, meaning the number of deaths in a certain population in a given time period divided by the size of the population.

Objectives

Specific, time-limited, and quantifiable statements that summarize an expected result of an intervention.

Outcome (impact) Objectives

State the intended effect of the program on participants or on the community in such terms as the participants' increased knowledge, changed behaviors or attitudes, or decreased injury rates.

Passive Interventions

Something that offers automatic protection from injury, often without requiring any conscious change of behavior by the individual; child-resistant bottles and air bags are some examples.

Primary Injury Prevention

Keeping an injury from occuring.

Process Objectives

State how a program will be implemented, describing the service to be provided, the nature of the service, and to whom it will be directed.

Risk Factors

Characteristics of people, behaviors, or environments that increase the chances of disease or injury. Some examples are alcohol use, poverty, or gender.

Secondary Injury Prevention

Reducing the effects of an injury that has already happened.

Unintentional Injuries

Injuries that occur without intent to harm (commonly called accidents). Some examples are motor vehicle crashes, poisonings, drownings, falls, and most burns.

Years of Potential Life Lost

A way of measuring and comparing the overall impact of deaths resulting from different causes. It is calculated based on a fixed age minus the age at death. Usually the fixed age is 65 or 75 or the life expectancy of the group in question.

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