process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
polysaccharides; many units of C6H12O6 joined together; complex carbohydrates
The green plant pigment necessary for the manufacture of carbohydrates
Composed of one or two units of C6H12O6; includes the monosaccharides (glucose,fructose, and galactose) and the disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
A carbohydrate composed of many molecules of C6H12O6 joined together, (polysaccharides) includes starch, glycogen, fiber
smallest living quantity into which a substance may be divided without loss of it's characteristic
A substance that cannot be separated into simpler parts by ordinary means
smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element. An consists of the neutrons, protons, electrons
Complex carbohydrates composed of many units of C6H12O6 joined together; examples important in nutrition starch, glycogen, fiber
A simple sugar composed of one unit of C6H12O6 joined together, examples include glucose, fructose, galactose
Simple sugar composed of 2 units of C6H12O6 joined together examples include sucrose, lactose, maltose
A normal fasting blood sugar range is?
Another name for simple sugar( glucose)
through a vein
A monosaccharide found in fruits and honey a simple sugar
Monosaccharide derived mainly from the breakdown of the sugar in milk lactose
A disaccharide one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose joined together also kmown as white table sugar
A disaccharide found mainly in milk and milk by products
A disaccharide produced when starches are broken down by the body into simpler units, two units of glucose joined together
material in foods mostly from plants that the human body can't break down or digest
The ability of one substance to dissolve into another substance
the capacity to do work
The physical state of the human body with ketones elevated in the blood and present in the urine, one example is diabetic ketosis
a ketone body found in urine which can be due to the excessive breakdown of stored body fat
A ketone body found in urine which can be due the excessive breakdown of stored body fat
What is the use for sugar alcohols?
They are commonly used as a 1 for 1 replacement basis for sugars in recipes
What is the function of sugar alcohols?
they add sweetness and also add bulk to recipes
What is the function of intense sweeteners?
They add sweetness
What is the use for intense sweeteners?
An artificial sweetener used in carbonated beverages, toothpaste, cold remedies, diabetic puddings, cakes, cookies
What is the function of glycogen?
continually broken down and built up to provide immediate fuel for muscle action, it supports and stores carbohydrates
Starch is found primarily in what?
vegetables, legumes, and foods made from grains- cereals, breads, pasta
Carbohydrates are composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What are sources of soluble fiber?
beans, oatmeal, barley, broccoli, citrus fruits, oat bran
What are sources insoluble fiber are?
woody or structural parts or plants such as fruit and vegetables skins, outer coating of bran or wheat kernels
Functions of carbohydrates are?
provide fuel, spare body protein, help prevent ketosis, enhance learning and memory processes
How do carbohydrates provide fuel for the body?
carbohydrates are the sources of fuel for the brain, other nervous tissue, and the lungs. The brain cannot store carbohydrates it must have an uninterrupted ongoing source of carbohydrates the minimum requirement which is determined by the brains need for glucose
How do carbohydrates spare body protein?
an adequate supply of carbohydrates spares body protein stores from being partially converted into glucose and allows protein to be used for growth and repair of body tissue
How do carbohydrates help prevent ketosis?
if carbohydrate intake is too low the body will break down both stored fat and internal protein to meet it's fuel needs. The body cannot handle the excessive breakdown of stored fat because the body lacks the necessary equipment. Partially broken down fats accumulate in the blood in the form of ketones
How do carbohydrates enhance learning and memory?
blood glucose concentrations regulate neural and behavioral processes. Findings have shown that glucose consumed early in the morning facilitates specific forms of cognitive function
Some sources of sugar are...
honey, jam, jelly, sugars in carbonated beverages, ice cream, sherbet, cakes, cookies, pies, cookies, and donuts
Sources of starches include
typical cereal grain, whole grains, white flour, white rice, oat products, cornbread, cornmeal, cracked wheat bread, oatmeal, pumpernickel bread, rye bread, whole wheat bread, breads made from bran, barley, graham crackers
What is the dietary recommendation for carbs?
What are the number of kcalories per gram of carbohydrates?