The oxygen you breath in ends up in which byproduct of cellular respiration?
When running a marathon which energy system is used most?
Movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane
Moving from higher concentration to lower
What affects diffusion
Temperarature, Concentration, Size and Shape of Molecule
is various reactions that acquire and use energy for the characteristics of life.
Organisms with membrane bound organelles belong to which of the following
is a tissue
Groups of similar cells that perform the same function
The example of the scientific method read aloud in class involved sexual reproduction
Which of the following kingdoms does not have eukaryotic cells
When considering the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which of the following is NOT associated with it?
During lecture, when we are describing cells, we use the walls, floor and ceiling to represent which cell part?
The oxygen atom in a water molecule has a slight positive charge.
Organelles, such as the mitochondria, move around internally within the cell by the cytoskeleton.
Anaerobic respiration starts and ends in the mitochondria
Direct communication between adjacent cells in your heart occurs because of tight junctions.
ATP is formed during which of the following?
Considering denaturing enzymes, which of the following would be an oxidizing agent?
__________________ prevent substances from leaking down between cells
Organization of Life
Molecular basis of inheritence
Theory of Heredity
Unity of LIfe
Theory of Evolution
Diversity of life
no membrane bound organelles, DNA not enclose in nucleus, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Membrane Bound, Plants, Animals, Protistans and Fungi
Plasma Membrane-Lipid Bilayer
Two layers of phospholipids; Oxygen is bigger and slightly negative and hydrogen is slightly positive
Provides structural support to membrane in Lipid Bilayer
Attraction, but with enough energy will break lose
Attach together and exchange genetics
stick to other cells
Outer defining limit of cell and regulates movement
Regions of Plasma Membrane
Intracellular and Extracellular
Mostly water, contains soluble componets
Seperates DNA from rest of cytoplasm; place for DNA to be copied
RNA is made here
DNA itself and proteins
In animal cells and extends through cytoplasm
Contains Ribosomes, secreting proteins and is attached
attached to endoplasmic ret. ; composed of proteins and ribsomal RNA; produce proteins
No ribosomes; produces lipids or steroids; transports from rER to Golgo Bodies, inactivates wastes and drugs in liver
Processes proteins and lipids that arrive from ER, arrives and leaves in vessicles
membranous sacs that move through cytosplasm
Cytomembrane Sytems Consists of...
Endoplastic Reticulum, Gogli, and Vesicles
Functions of Cytomembrane
produce and store biological molecules, stored and shipped ot various destiniations
Contain enzymes and digestion of whole cell or cell parts
Contain enzymesand detoxify substances
Breaks down alcohol and fermalahyde and converts to h2o2=hydrogen peroxide
double membrane system; forms ATP through aerobis respiration
present in all eukaryotic cells; basis for cell shape; allows movement in cells
prevents stuff from going in between cells
Hang on to each other; example elbow
allow passage of material from one cell to other
Plants cells contain...
chloroplasts and central vacuole
convert sunlight energy to sugar through photosynthesis and contains pigment chlorophyll
Fluid-filled oganelle; stores molecules; fluid pressure forces cell wall to expand as cell grows; takes up to 50 to 90% of interior
No chlorophyll, colors fruits and flowers
no pigments and stores starch
surrounds plasma membrane and occurs in plants, some fungi and some protistans
Fiber in diet-will clean out system
gap junction in plant cells
Restricts water loss
Resemble bacteria, have own DNA, divide on their own
Idea that mitchondria and chloroplasts were originally free living bacteria
capacity to do work or put matter in motion
directly utilized by body and stored in bonds
directly utilized by body and have charged differencess
Indirectly utilized by body and movement of muscles
indirectly used by body and is outside heat
going towards disorder
Organic catalyst-speeds up chemical reactions and contains proteins-decreasing energy of activation
Breaks down lipids
enzyme in mouth
Functions of enzymes affected by...
pH, temp, and oxidizing substances
Cellular process bu which energy released from nutrients
ATP is utilized for...
chemical biosynthesis, muscle contraction, nerve impulse, active transport
NO OXYGEN, starts with glycolysis, completed in cytoplasm
REQUIRES OXYGEN, starts with glyclosis in cytoplasm, and completed in mitochondria
Requires 2 ATP to start.....ends in 4 ATP, NADH, 2 pryuvate molecules
Resperation Step 1
Oxidative Respiration- Pyruvate forms acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide lost
Respiration Step 2
Kreb's Cycle-Acetyl CoA enters-binds with beginning molecule-releases 2 carbon dioxide molecules-Hydrogen and electrons picked up by NAD and FAD-----ATP FORMED
Electron Transport System
OXYGEN used- NADH and FADH used--hydrogen moved across membrane--ATP synthases produce ATP as hydrogen flows back through membrane---02 picks up hydrogen and electrons creates water
Occurs in muscles and Bacteria
Bacteria in yogurt
Bacteria in yogurt
Carbon dioxide and ethanol produced
fungus in beer and wine production
fungus in bread making
ATP enegery use
Creatine Phosphate energy use
10 to 15 seconds
Glycolytic energy system energy use
makes 2 ATP and no oxygen used
Oxidative energy system
produces largest amount of enery- uses oxygen
Carbon is removed by 2's and enter Kreb's cycle
Lipid Molecule Backbone
removed as unit and enters system as pyruvate
form proteins--REMOVE NH3 first and remainder enters at pyruvate or Kreb's Cycle
look like dimes-location of chlorophyll
Determined by reflection or absortion of light
Three carbon compound found at end of glycolysis
Only to carry hydrogen
Only thing that happens outside of mitochondria
Looking at a pair of blue shorts you recognize the color blue.....
is reflection of blue