Cells (Part 2): Mitosis & Meiosis

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Why do cells divide?

-Growth
-Repair/Replacement
-Reproduction (unicellular organisms)

Cell Cycle

Mitosis

The process of nuclear division.

Interphase

The prep stage for mitosis.

Gap 1: Cell growth (All organelles & cytoplasm double in number)

Synthesis: DNA replication (DNA doubles)

Gap 2: Prep for mitosis (All structures associated with mitosis double)

Interphase

Stages of Mitosis

1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase

Prophase

-Nuclear membrane disappears.
-Spindle forms.
-Chromosomes shorten and thicken to become visible.

Metaphase

Chromatids align along the equator (middle) of the spindle.

Anaphase

Chromatids separate and chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the spindle.

Telophase

-Chromosomes lengthen and become thin.
-Spindle disappears.
-Nuclear membrane forms.

Cytokinesis

The division of cytoplasm

Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

Cell Furrow or Cleavage Furrow

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells

Cell Plate

How are cancer cells different from healthy cells?

Unlike healthy cells, cancerous cells have lost their ability to control their growth rate and will continue multiplying even after touching other cells.

Cell Cycle

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

Pneumonic Device: I Passed My Anatomy Test Completely

Meiosis

The process of the formation of gamates (reproductive cells)

How many chromosomes do humans have?

46

Germ Cell

The cell that divides to produce the gametes.

Gamete

A reproductive cell.

Male gamete

Sperm

Female gamete

Egg

Number of chromosomes in a germ cell

46

Number of chromosomes in a gamete

23

Zygote

Fertilized egg

Polar Bodies

Small cells produces and discarded due to too little cytoplasm during formation of female gamete

Stages of Meiosis

-Interphase
-Prophase 1
-Metaphase 1
-Anaphase 1
-Telophase 1
-NO INTERPHASE 2 (No 2nd DNA replication)
-Prophase 2
-Metaphase 2
-Anaphase 2
-Telophase 2

Distinguish between Mitosis & Meiosis

Mitosis: 1 division, creates 2 cells identical to the original (parent) cell with 46 chromosomes in humans, creates body (somatic) cells

Meiosis: 2 divisions, creates 4 cells with half the genetic information as the original (parent) cell with 23 chromosomes, creates reproductive cells (gametes: egg & sperm)

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