The European slave trade out of Africa vastly expanded when...
...sugar plantations were established on the Atlantic islands and in the Americas.
The large numbers and high volume of Africans in the slave trade was necessary because...
...the mortality of slaves was high and their birth rate was low.
The largest number of enslaved Africans were sent to work in which of the following industries in the 1450-1750 era?
What was one of the distinguishing features of slavery in Africa?
the enslavement of women and children for domestic labor
What factor allowed Europeans to join in and profit from the commerce in slaves so quickly in the 16th century?
the well-established patterns of slavery in Africa prior to the arrival of European traders
With regard to the slave trade and slavery in Africa, contacts with the Europeans...
...increased violence and the disruption within African societies.
What processes occurred within Africa during the early modern period as a result of the influences of Islam and Western civilization?
-political reorganization, both in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa
-integration of African cultures and communities into the New World economy
-increased religious conversion, both to Islam and various forms of Christianity
-significant and permanent social change
The Portuguese solidified commercial and cultural contacts in Africa through the creation of factories, which were...
forts and trading posts with resident merchants.
Intensive production of which commodity greatly increased the importance of the slave trade for Portugal and Spain?
Which European nation became a major player in the slave trade after seizing the important factory center at El Mina in 1637?
What occupations did slaves perform throughout African societies prior to the inception of the European and Islamic slave systems?
-servants and concubines
Increased European presence and influence led to the rise of several new states in west and central Africa that based their power on control of which two commodities?
slaves and firearms
On Zanzibar off the east African coast, Swahili, Indian, and Arab merchants adopted the European slave plantation system to cultivate which commodity crop?
Which Nguni chiefdom's powerful military and political structure became a source of inspiration and fear for surrounding communities between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
Slaves in the New World confronted difficulties forming families due to which circumstances?
-family members faced with the threat of separation at any time
-difficult and exhausting working conditions
-short and uncertain life spans
-general shortages of female slaves
Although similar in many ways in their relationship to the emerging world system, which African circumstances differed sharply from those prevalent in Latin America during the early modern period?
Africa remained independent of outside political control, and most cultural development was autonomous.
Which African kingdom first converted to Christianity through the efforts of Portuguese missionaries?
What patterns of contact, established by the Portuguese, became standard for all European powers throughout the early modern period?
-predominantly commercial relations
-alliances with local rulers
-systems of fortified trading stations
-combinations of force and diplomacy
Internal instability and competition for European and Islamic trade led to the rise of which professional cohort throughout central and west Africa between 1500 and 1750 C.E.?
soldiers and military commanders
Which new empire, based on the Gold Coast, used a golden stool as its symbol of power and cultural unity?
What forces encouraged Bantu tribes to move southward toward the southern tip of Africa throughout the eighteenth century C.E.?
-diverse patterns of political organization that led to the splitting of lineages to form new villages, which in turn encouraged southward migration
-increased competition for land due to population growth
-desire to acquire access to fertile coastal regions suitable for herding and grazing
-competition over access to Portuguese and other European coastal trading stations
The Middle Passage was...
...the traumatic slave journey across the Atlantic from Africa to the New World.
The most successful example of African-American slave resistance and rebellion occurred in...
Which of the following aided Africa in regaining some of its lost population during slave trade?
the introduction of new crops
Some historians argue the profit of the slave trade inadvertently led to the...
During the seventeenth century, the kingdom of Dahomey created an autocratic empire due to access to...
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Middle Passage?
The Middle Passage usually stripped slaves of their religious beliefs.