AP World History Chapter 20

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World Civilizations: The Global Experience AP Edition Online questions

The European slave trade out of Africa vastly expanded when...

...sugar plantations were established on the Atlantic islands and in the Americas.

The large numbers and high volume of Africans in the slave trade was necessary because...

...the mortality of slaves was high and their birth rate was low.

The largest number of enslaved Africans were sent to work in which of the following industries in the 1450-1750 era?

sugar

What was one of the distinguishing features of slavery in Africa?

the enslavement of women and children for domestic labor

What factor allowed Europeans to join in and profit from the commerce in slaves so quickly in the 16th century?

the well-established patterns of slavery in Africa prior to the arrival of European traders

With regard to the slave trade and slavery in Africa, contacts with the Europeans...

...increased violence and the disruption within African societies.

What processes occurred within Africa during the early modern period as a result of the influences of Islam and Western civilization?

-political reorganization, both in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa
-integration of African cultures and communities into the New World economy
-increased religious conversion, both to Islam and various forms of Christianity
-significant and permanent social change

The Portuguese solidified commercial and cultural contacts in Africa through the creation of factories, which were...

forts and trading posts with resident merchants.

Intensive production of which commodity greatly increased the importance of the slave trade for Portugal and Spain?

sugar

All of these areas were major importers of African slaves EXCEPT...

British North America.

Which European nation became a major player in the slave trade after seizing the important factory center at El Mina in 1637?

Holland

What occupations did slaves perform throughout African societies prior to the inception of the European and Islamic slave systems?

-servants and concubines
-administrators
-agricultural laborers
-soldiers

Increased European presence and influence led to the rise of several new states in west and central Africa that based their power on control of which two commodities?

slaves and firearms

On Zanzibar off the east African coast, Swahili, Indian, and Arab merchants adopted the European slave plantation system to cultivate which commodity crop?

cloves

Which Nguni chiefdom's powerful military and political structure became a source of inspiration and fear for surrounding communities between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?

Zulu

Slaves in the New World confronted difficulties forming families due to which circumstances?

-family members faced with the threat of separation at any time
-difficult and exhausting working conditions
-short and uncertain life spans
-general shortages of female slaves

Although similar in many ways in their relationship to the emerging world system, which African circumstances differed sharply from those prevalent in Latin America during the early modern period?

Africa remained independent of outside political control, and most cultural development was autonomous.

Which African kingdom first converted to Christianity through the efforts of Portuguese missionaries?

Kongo

What patterns of contact, established by the Portuguese, became standard for all European powers throughout the early modern period?

-predominantly commercial relations
-alliances with local rulers
-systems of fortified trading stations
-combinations of force and diplomacy

What type of African slaves was most prevalent in the trans-Saharan slave trade?

young women

An Indies piece was...

...a Spanish term for the commercial value of a healthy male slave.

Internal instability and competition for European and Islamic trade led to the rise of which professional cohort throughout central and west Africa between 1500 and 1750 C.E.?

soldiers and military commanders

Which new empire, based on the Gold Coast, used a golden stool as its symbol of power and cultural unity?

Asante

What forces encouraged Bantu tribes to move southward toward the southern tip of Africa throughout the eighteenth century C.E.?

-diverse patterns of political organization that led to the splitting of lineages to form new villages, which in turn encouraged southward migration
-increased competition for land due to population growth
-desire to acquire access to fertile coastal regions suitable for herding and grazing
-competition over access to Portuguese and other European coastal trading stations

The Middle Passage was...

...the traumatic slave journey across the Atlantic from Africa to the New World.

The most successful example of African-American slave resistance and rebellion occurred in...

...Suriname.

Nzinga Mvemba brought which kingdom to Christianity?

Kongo

A central element to Portuguese production was...

slavery

The first slaves were brought to Portugal in...

1441

Between 1450 and 1850, _______ slaves were shipped across the Atlantic.

12 million

The Caribbean islands were dedicated to _______ production.

sugar

By the seventeenth century, ________ was the largest supplier of slaves.

west central Africa

Which of the following aided Africa in regaining some of its lost population during slave trade?

the introduction of new crops

Some historians argue the profit of the slave trade inadvertently led to the...

industrial revolution

In the Muslim faith,...

...the enslavement of nonbelievers was acceptable.

During the seventeenth century, the kingdom of Dahomey created an autocratic empire due to access to...

firearms

Who preached a jihad against the Hausa kings?

Usuman Dan Fodio

A Boer refers to...

...a Dutch farmer in South Africa.

Shaka of the Zulus was assassinated in...

...1828.

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Middle Passage?

The Middle Passage usually stripped slaves of their religious beliefs.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a slave trade.

true

A saltwater slave refers to a native Africa slave.

true

The Asante people used peaceful tactics in order to expand their empire.

false

Virginia and the Carolinas imported more slaves than the Caribbean and Brazil.

false

The Europeans abhorred African art.

false

Control of the slave trade generally reflected the politics in Europe.

true

France was the key proponent for the end of slave trade.

false

The Boers embarked on the Great Trek in order to be free of government interference.

true

The slave trade negatively impacted both the east and west coasts of Africa.

false

The slave population in the southern United States never grew due to climate.

false

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