Psychology Ch 8 10 - CJK

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Psychology Chapters 8 and 10

Jill reminisced about her first date and how she felt when she received her first kiss. Memories associated with life experienced like Jill's are called :

episodic memories

The notion that a person would forget something because that memory would be threatening to the individual in some way is known as the theory of :

Motivated forgetting

During a test, if you were asked to answer the essay question "Who was the founder of experimental psychology?", this question would most require the use of ___ in order to answer the question.

Recall

On Lincoln's birthday Mary recited the Gettysburg Address. While she was reciting, the information was being held in ___ memory.

working

The memory exercise in your test presented a "study" list of words and a "test" list of words later. Many students incorrectly recalled "sleep" as being in the study list when it was not. This illustrates:

the false memory construction of memory.

Which of the following are the operations associated with the information-processing model of memory?

input, storage, and retrieval.

The phrase "7 plus or minus 2" refers to the:

storage capacity of short-term memory

Synaptic facilitation is a term that describes the process of synapses

changing the brain to form new memories.

Long-term memory is to short-term memory as

permanent storage is to temporary storage.

Short-term memories are primarily handled by the ___ of the brain.

frontal lobes.

According to motivated forgetting theory, which type of experience is most likely to be forgotten?

an upsetting experience

In preparing for any test, which of the following would be most beneficial?

elaboration.

In the levels of processing model of memory, there ___ memory store(s) beyond the sensory register.

is one

Research has shown that when drawing ambiguous figures from memory, people will alter the drawing to better suit the labels that have been assigned to the drawings. This research has been interpreted as support for the:

schema theory of forgetting.

Suppose a person is injected with a drug that leaves current memory intact, but prevents new information from passing from short-term to long-term memory. This drug would produce _____.

anterograde amnesia.

Which of the following is the best explanation of the spreading activation model of long-term memory?

We form connections between concepts based on experience.

Anterograde amnesia is the inability to store and retrieve ____ information in long-term memory.

New

In the stage theory of memory, the different stages are the:

sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory stages.

You were introduced to your date's best friend just 10 minutes ago. Now you need to get her attention but you cannot remember her name. You forgot because of the limits of:

short-term memory.

The two fundamental levels in the levels of processing theory of memory are

shallow and deep.

If you remember the 12-letter series NBVIBMCBSFBI in the form of three letter abbreviations for well-known organizations NBC IBM CBS FBI, you improve your ability to recall the series by means of ____ .

chunking

Memories for how to ride a bike or other types of skills are known as ____ memories.

procedural

Generally speaking, when attempting to remember information, the ___ method leads to better memory performance than the ___ method.

recognition; recall

You cannot quite recall a word, but you remember what letter it begins with. This is characteristic of the ___ phenomenon.

tip-of-the-tongue

According to the levels of processing model, the best memory for a list of words would be obtained by

relating an important event in your life to each word.

Visual information is retained in the sensory register for about ___ of a second.

one-quarter

Rehearsal is a process that helps renew the information being held in

short-term memory.

Weaker sensory "Echoes" from auditory information can be held in the sensory register for up to ___ seconds.

4

Our working memory space tends to overlap with the functions of

short-term memory.

The theory of memory that suggests that the basis of learning and memory is due to unique patterns of neuronal activity causing changes in synapses to occur is known as:

synaptic facilitation.

The organization of long-term memory is not necessary to increase storage capacity, but it is necessary to

facilitate memory retrieval.

According to the information-processing model, attention serves as a:

control mechanism.

Damage to the hippocampus, as in H.M.'s case, can lead to the memory problem:

anterograde amnesia.

It's difficult not to be able to remember items that others expect you to remember. If you just started making up memories to answer others' questions, this is known as:

confabulation.

In a study of the serial position effect, what happened when recall was delayed for more than 30 seconds?

Items at the end of the list were poorly recalled.

To stretch the storage capacity of short-term memory, individuals are capable of grouping like items together. For instance, the directions north, south, east, and west can be grouped as "directions," and "directions" could be one item in memory. This process of stretching the limits of short-term memory in the fashion is called:

chunking.

If you believe that long-term memories are permanently stored, then which of the following is the most logical explanation for forgetting long-term memories?

There is not a strong enough retrieval cue to recover the memory.

When asked what your parent's phone number is, you cannot repeat it, but a moment later you can dial it from memory without looking it up. In this case, which memory system has served you well?

procedural memory.

In long-term memory, a memory disorder in which one cannot store or retrieve new information is called ____.

anterograde amnesia.

The famous memory case of "H.M." illustrates the memory disorder known as ____ .

anterograde amnesia

This multiple-choice item is best characterized as a question that requires ___ in order to answer it correctly (remember, one of the answers below is correct!)

recognition

If I were to tell you that I was recalled an episodic memory, that would mean that I was remembering:

a specific time r event from my life.

Memory theories based on the similarities between the operation of the human brain and the computer are called ___ theories.

information processing

You wish to log in to your computer network and the system requests your password. You no longer have the piece of paper you wrote the password on, so you must rely on ____ .

recall

Which of the following is an example of a control mechanism?

retrieval

You cannot remember much of what you learned in high school chemistry but you learn the same chemistry material in college much faster than you did in high school. Which method of memory evaluation does this illustrate?

relearning

Unlike forgetting in short-term memory, forgetting in long-term memory is due to:

retrieval problems.

Information stored in LTM is integrated in the ___ before it is transferred to ___ areas for permanent storage.

hippocampus; cortical

Donald Hebb described a process that he believed was the physiological process responsible for learning and memory. He termed this process:

synaptic facilitation.

The depth at which we process information determines how well it is encoded, stored, and retrieved. This statement is the central idea of the:

levels of processing model.

Piaget's use of the term egocentric means that the child:

cannot see things from another's perspective.

A 13-year-old breaks up with his first girlfriend and he is very upset. No one can console him, because he believes that no one else has ever been hurt as badly as he has been. The boy's beliefs are consistent with:

adolescent egocentrism.

What changes in the brain have researchers associated with later adulthood?

a decrease in brain weight

In helping to understand how we develop, the ___ approach suggests we are controlled by biological factors, while the ___ approach suggests that the psychological environment determines who we are.

nature; nurture

Which of the following is an effect of climacteric in men?

decline in sperm cell production

If you were to study the basic values of adolecents, such as attutudes toward work, saving money, and competition, you would probably find them to be similar to those

of their peers.

An adolescent who hypothesizes and speaks in terms of possibilities may well be functioning in the cognitive stage of

formal operational thought.

Which of the following terms is most closely tied with the nurture side of the nature versus nurture debate?

learning

Based on the research by the Harlows, what happened when mother-deprived monkeys became mothers themselves?

they rejected and attacked their own infants.

In the first level of Gilligan's theory of moral development, children are concerned with

what is good for them

Overall, what effect does aging have on personality characteristics?

fundamental aspects of personality are fairly stable.

Friendship groups or cliques begin to develop during which stage of cognitive development?

concrete operational

The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight is known as

object permanence

According to Kohlberg, nearly all children use only ___ reasoning at age of 7 years.

premoral

Which of the following would be an example of telegraphic speech?

Milk all gone.

Stage theorists believe that all children pass through different stages

in the same order.

According to Kohlberg, higher levels of moral development reflect an increase in

concern over the ethics of a person's actions.

During Erikson's stage known as intimacy vs. isolation, what happens?

Individuals form into couples or become separated from meaningful relationships.

Which of the following behaviors is an example of Kohlberg's premoral level?

getting good grades to earn money from your parents

One major change from the concrete operations stage to the formal operational stage is the acquisition of the ability to

tink abstractly

What do stage theorists mean when they discuss that the transition between stages is a gradual blending?

A child may have mastered part of the next stage while still struggling with part of the previous stage.

If a child can understand that 2+2=4 and 4-2=2, then the child possesses the characteristic of:

reversibility

Puberty marks the onset of:

adolescence

Between ages 7 and 11, many of the restrictions of earlier patterns disappear and children can think in sophisticated ways as long as what they are thinking about is tangibly represented. Piaget calls this stage:

concrete operations.

The term ___ describes the use of oversimplified logic by adolescents.

pseudo-stupidity

Bob has an unknown liquid and must determine what it is. He decides to systematically use a number of tests to determine what it is. What stage of cognitive development has Bob reached?

formal operational

Monkeys who were reared alone for the first 6 months of their lives and placed with an opposite-sex monkey at adulthood:

were fearful or clumsy in sexual situations.

The ability to use abstract concepts is a key component of the ___ stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

formal operations.

Right after Larry discovered he was terminally ill he felt like he could beat the illness. Which of Kubler-Ross's stages will Larry most likely experience next?

anger

The first time a child possesses the ability of conservation occurs during the ___ stage of cognitive development.

concrete operations

Which of the following is a common physical cause of intellectual decline in old age?

hardening of the arteries of the brain

which of the following is a primary feature of adolescent egocentrism?

hypocrisy

What three emotions are neonates capable of expressing?

surprise, pleasure, and distress

Jean Piaget is notable for proposing a widely influential theory of ___ development.

cognitive

When monkeys were raised in isolation for the first few months of their lives and then introduced into a normal environment,

their behavior was affected, even three years later.

According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage of death and dying is

denial

Over the lifespan, our brain

loses weight

One of the problems associated with stage theories of adult development is that

very few studies take into account women and aging.

During which stage of social development do peer relationships become the most important relationship?

adolescence

Compared to individuals in their 20s, individuals in their 70s showed declines in

fluid intelligence

On what tests do older adults tend to perform better than younger adults?

word meaning and wise decision making

Which of the following would indicate that a human parent and child have formed a strong attachment?

separation anxiety

The fact that a two-year-old child cannot catch a ball with one hand would emphasize the importance of ___ in the development.

maturation

Which of the following is the correct order of stages in Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Premoral, conventional, principled

Which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development is characterized by egocentric thought?

preoperational

The first two weeks of life are known as the ____ period.

neonatal

"Out of sight, out of mind" can describe the behavior of a child who has not mastered the concept of

object permanence

In Piaget's cognitive development theory, the infancy period occurs during the ___ stage.

sensorimotor

Which of the following is a key psychological variable of happy aging?

ignoring myths about old age

Which of the following statements best describes moral reasoning at the conventional level?

Individuals make choices based on what others will think of them.

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