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Defend Earth from alien invaders
Consists of 22 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx
Divisions of the vertebra
7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebra, and 5 lumbar vertebrae
General features of vertebrae
Posterior spinous process, anterior vertebral body, two lateral transverse processes, and a central vertebral foramen
7 vertebrae located in the neck; have holes in their transverse processes called transverse foramina; have bifid or forked spinous processes
permit the passage of vertebral artery and vein; a feature of the cervical vertebrae
(C1); first cervical vertebra; articulates with the occipital bone; large vertebral foramen, no body, or spinous process
(C2); second cervical vertebra; superior projection called the dens or odontoid process.
The dens of the axis fits up inside the atlas to form this joint, which allows rotation of the head.
12 thoracic vertebrae; spinous processes that are thin and point inferiorly; two costal facets that articulate with the ribs, triangular vertebral foramina; looks like a giraffe
5 lumbar vertebrae; large, block-like body; spinous processes that are thick and point posteriorly; looks like a moose
Consists of 5 fused vertebrae, median sacral crest, sacral foramina, and sacroiliac joints
Median sacral crest
Fused spinous processes of the vertebrae located on the sacrum's posterior side
Holes that allow the passage of spinal nerves, which flank both sides of the sacral bodies
Articulation of the lateral surfaces of the sacrum and the hip bones
Consists of 3-5 small, fused vertabrae; articulates superiorly with the sacrum
Bones of the thoracic cavity
sternum, ribs, and hyoid bone of the neck
3 divisions of the sternum
upper Manubrium, middle body, and lower xiphoid process
12 pairs of ribs (24 ribs); classified according to how they attach to the sternum
Ribs 1-7; attach directly to the sternum through their own cartilage
Ribs 8-10; attach to the cartilage of the true ribs
Ribs 11-12; lack attachment to the sternum
Classified as a skull bone; does not articulate with any skull bone or other bone; held in place in the superior neck by muscles and ligaments; forms the framework for the larynx; serves as an attachment site for muscles of tongue and aids in swallowing; consists of a body and greater/lesser horn
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