drug that prevents pain during surgery
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
made improvements on Newcomen's invention of the engine
separating iron from its ore
money used to invest in enterprises
a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories.
those who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses.
(aka cotton industry) raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and wove the thread
invented a machine called the cotton gin
a machine that separated the seeds from raw cotton at a fast rate
private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers in a toil, or fee, to use them.
where the world's first major rail line started. (opened in england in 1830)
where the world's first major rail line would end. (opened in england in 1830)
the movement of people to cities
multistory buildings divided into apartments.
British economist who saw the effects of the population explosion
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
solution to end poverty and injustice
means of production
the farms, factories, railroads, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods.
set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland, to put his own ideas into practice.
a german philosopher who condemned the ideas of the utopians as unrealistic idealism.
a system in which governments led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life.
a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system.