Bones and Cartilages of the Human Body

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Axial skeleton

bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

Appendicular skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

Functions of the bones

framework, levers for muscles, storage, and blood cell formation

Compact bone

The dense, hard layer of bone tissue

Spongy bone

honeycomb of trabeculae (little beams) filled with red bone marrow

Diaphysis

tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones, composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity, yellow bone marrow (fat) is contained in the medullary cavity

Epiphysis

expanded ends of long bones, exterior is compact bone and the interior is spongy bone

Articular cartilage

aka Hyaline cartilage
the joint surface of the epiphysis is covered with this

Epiphyseal line

separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis (growth)

Periosteum

double-layered protective membrane

dense regular CT

outer fibrous layer of Periosteum

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

inner osteogenic layer of the periosteum is composed of these two things

Perforating fibers

secures the underlying bone to the periosteum

collagen fibers

perforating fibers are tufts of this type of fiber

location of the hematopoietic tissue in infants

medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone

Hematopoietic tissue

red marrow

location of the hematopoietic tissue in adults

middle of long bones and the head of the proximal and distal epiphysis

Osteon system

Haversian system; the structural unit of compact bone

llamela

weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen

Haversian canal

central channel that contains blood vessels and nerve fibers

Perforating canals

channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal

Osteocytes

mature bone cells

Osteoblasts

bone-forming cells

Osteoclasts

large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix

lacunae

small cavities in the bone that contain osteocytes

canalliculi

hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

Inorganic chemical composition

Mineral salts make up 65% of bone by mass, mainly calcium phospates, responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression

bulges, depressions,and holes serve as

sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
joint surfaces, conduits for blood vessels and nerves

tuberosity

rounded projection

crest

narrow, prominent ridge of bone

trancanter

large, blunt, irregular surface

line

narrow ridge of the bone

turbal

small, rounded projection

epicondyle

raised area above a condyle

spine

sharp slender projection

process

any bone prominence (sticks out)

head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

condyle

rounded articular projection

ramus

armlike bar of bone

meatus

canal-like passageway

sinus

cavity within the skull

fosa

shallow, basinlike depression

groove

furrow

fissure

narrow, slit-like opening

foraman

round or oval opening through the bone

ossification and osteogenesis

the process of bone tissue formation, which leads to: the formation of the bony skeleton in embryos, bone growth until early adulthood, bone thickness, remodeling, and repair

formation of the bony skeleton begins at

week 8 of embryo development

instramembranous ossification

bone develops from a fibrous membrane

endochondral ossification

bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage

prolification zone

cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

calcification zone

older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, and the matrix begins to deteriorate

ossification zone

new bone formation occurs

interstitual growth

growth in length that continually grows and is replaced by bone

remodeling

bone is thicker and stronger by appositional growth

scapula

shoulder blade, irregular

humerus

upperarm, long

ulna

pinky side, long

carpal

wrist, short

metacarpal

palm of hand, short

phalanges

toes/fingers

femur

thigh, largest bone in the body, long

fibula

lateral lower leg, long

clavicle

collar bone AXIAL

Ilium

pelvis

pubis

pubic symphasis , irregular

ishium

sitting bone, pelvis

patella

knee, newborns do not have this

tibia

under femur, long

tarsal

ankle, short

metatarsal

middle foot

frontal

babies have two (forehead)

zygomatic

cheeks

mandible

jaw

maxilla

upper jaw

vomer

nose

temporal

lateral side of head

parietal

above ear

cervical vertebrae

C1-C7

thoracic vertebrae

T1-T12

lumbar vertebrae

L1-L5 lower back

Sacrum and Coccyx

last two bones in the vertebral column

intervertebral disk

between vertebrae

sternum

breastbone

floating ribs

11 and 12 no anterior attachment

false ribs

8-12 more cartilage than bone

true ribs

1-7 more bone than cartilage

Hematoma

impact was strong enough to break bone therefore tissue and muscle; it is not a normal bruise. Symptoms: swollen, lumpy, sore

fibro cartilage callus

place that is hardening cartilage first

bony callus

osteocytes, bone building cells
jagged/rough

steps of bone remodeling

hemotoma, fibro cartilage, bony callus, bone polishing

bone pollishing

smooth it out by laying osteocytes

Female pelvis

shallow and wider

Male Pelvis

narrower and deeper

Fibrous Synthroses

immovable sutures in cranium; fibrous connective tissue

Cartilaginous Amphiathorses

semi-movable cartilage cushioning in the vertebral column, pubic symphasis

Synovial Diarthroses

freely movable articular capsule, cartilage, snyovial fluid in the shoulder girdle and pelvis

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