________ and ________ are characteristics of this religion
Common goal of Hinduism
4,000 year old ____ ____ is oldest sacred text
Hinduism states that "God is ___ but men call him by ___ name(s)"
Ultimate goal of Hinduism - ______ through ________
Term for liberation, means release from this ordinary, finite, limited realm of existence into the infinite ocean of the divine - infinite bliss
Hindus are _____, meaning they believe in many gods and goddesses that are the many "masks" of God
God, the universe, human beings, and all else essentially ___ thing
The doctrine that all reality is ultimately one
Monists believe that all forms of reality - gods and goddesses, plants and animals, the material universe, humans - share a common essence. Hindus call this essence ______.
Source of the universe
Discovered only through profound concentration
Ancient philosophical texts that form basis of most Hindu doctrines, teach that Brahman can be described only as neti, neti (not this, not that).
______ resides beneath all surfaces, just as atoms exist and are basic building blocks of life
________ is _______
The ultimate reality understood through the contemplation of the universe
The ultimate reality understood through contemplation of the inner self
Since everything is one, Hindus are free to worship any of the ___ million gods or goddesses
Western view of creation is the _____ progression of time (one even leads to another, until the end)
Hindu view of creation is that progression is _____
It is unclear exactly what is reincarnated, but it is thought that at the very least, it is the ______
Determines nature of each reincarnation
Literally means "action" or "deeds"
Moral law of cause and effect
States that every action produces an outcome that is justified by the action's moral worthiness
Ethical duty based on the divine order of reality
More than a specific list of rights and wrongs, it is the complete rule of life
Divine revelation, Sacred tradition, The practices and examples of those who are considered wise, Conscience
Four sources when seeking guidance
gender, caste, stage of life
Dharma determined by what three things?
Providing for the welfare of the family
What is the woman's primary role?
The ____ _____ is less relevant for women
Puberty, Householder, Forest dweller, Sannyasin
Four stages of life
Hindu boy becomes student. Intensive study of the Vedas and other sacred literature. Lasts until he is married (stage of life)
Having career and raising family is central. Women involved in this stage with husbands
Birth of the first grandchild starts this stage. This allows him to retreat from worldly bonds in order to engage in spiritual quest. A man may choose to ask his wife to accompany him through this stage
This is the stage for forest dwellers who are ready to return to society, but remain detached from normal attractions and distractions of social life. Engaged with the world but not attached to it. Women who accompany husband would advance to this stage as well. If they so, the husband and wife live detached from each other, having transcended ordinary ways of this world, including those of marriage
Kama, Artha, Dharma, Moksha
Four goals of life
Pleasure, within the limits of dharma
Infinite being, awareness, and bliss
Karma Marga, Jnana Marga, Bhakti Marga
Three Paths of Liberation
For the active - "The Path of Works" - deals with living according to dharma
For the philosophical - "The Path of Knowledge" - intended for those with talent for philosophical reflection. Requires that the person spend a lot of time learning and in meditation. Most practical for those of the Brahmin class
For the emotional - "The Path of Devotion" - suitable for those to whom emotional attachments come naturally