Biochemistry and Chemistry Biology

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Unit 4 Biochemistry and Chemistry for Biology

How is cohesion and adhesion alike?

They are both an attraction of molecules.

How is cohesion and adhesion different?

Cohesion is the attraction of the same substances while Adhesion is the attraction of different substances.

What is the significance to humans that water has a high specific heat?

Water can absorb a significant amount of heat (energy) without increasing in temperature.

What is the significance to living things that water is a universal solvent?

It can dissolve many compounds that need to be without increasing in temperature.

What is capillary action?

The tendency of a liquid to raise up a small, narrow tube.

The surface tension of water is attributed to what other property of water?

Adhesion

What is the most important inorganic compound in living things?

Water

Organic compounds contain which six elements?

CHNOPS
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorous
Sulfur

How do we determine if a chemical compound is organic or inorganic?

If the chemical compound has carbon bonded to hydrogen in it. Both carbon and hydrogen.

How do we determine if a physical substance is organic or inorganic?

If the physical substance has lived, is living, or came from something living.

In organic compounds, carbon atoms will bond in what three shapes?

Rings, straight chains, and branched chains

What is the monomer of proteins?

Amino acids

What is the monomer of carbonhydrates?

Monosaccharides

What is the monomer of lipids?

Fatty acids and glycerol

What is the monomer of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides

What is the most important monosaccharide on earth?

Glucose

Explain the difference between mono, di, and polysaccharide.

Monosaccharide is 1 single sugar.
Disaccharide is 2 sugars.
Polysaccharide is many sugars.

Common example of Monosaccharides.

Frutose

Common example of Disaccharides.

Sucrose

Common example of Polysaccharides.

Starch

What is the physical difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

Saturated fats are solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.

Which of these is attributed with clogging blood vessels and raising cholesterol?

Saturated Fats

What are the chemical, or structural, differences between saturated and unsaturated fats?

Saturated fats are in straight chains and contain single bonds between carbons. Unsaturated fats are in branched chains and contain at least 1 double bond between carbons

List the elements in Carbonhydrates.

CHO

List the elements in Lipids.

CHON

List the elements in Proteins.

CHO

List the elements in Nucleic Acids.

CHONP

What are 3 purposes that your body uses fats for?

Protection, energy, and insulation.

How much energy does a fat molecule contain versus a sugar molecule?

Twice as much as energy. (9:4)

What is a main food source of Lipids?

Oils of plants and animal fat

What is a main food source of Carbonhydrates?

Pasta and potatoes

What is a main food source of Proteins?

Fish, eggs, and beans.

What form is excess sugar in plants called?

Starch

What form is excess sugars in animals called? Which 2 organs is it stored in?

Glycogen, in liver and muscle.

Name 2 types of nucleic acids.

DNA & RNA

Give 2 specific ecamples of proteins.

Hormones and enzymes

Explain what an enzyme is.

A substance that starts reactions.

Explain why enzymes are so important.

They start all chemical reations in the body, allowing them to proceed at an effective rate.

What is the name of the substance that an enzyme acts upon?

Substrate

Name 3 factors that affect the rate at which an enzyme functions.

Temperature, pH levels, and amount of enzyme/substrate.

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