refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Real time information/systems
immediate, up-to-date information. Real-time systems provide real-time information in response to query requests
Are all the values correct?
Are any of the values missing?
Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with detailed information?
Is each transaction, entity, and event represented only once in the information?
Is the information current with respect to the business requirements?
a type of database that stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
also called fields or columns, are characteristics or properties of an entity class
a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
the physical storage of information on a storage device such as a hard disk
how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs
Relational integrity constraints
rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints
Business critical integrity constraints
enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints
software through which users and application programs interact with a database
allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other
Forward vs. backward integration
A forward integration takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes. A backward integration takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
single thread search engines
use automated programs referred to as spiders or crawlers to visit websites and record which terms exist on the web pages at the site. This information is stored in very powerful databases owned by the search engine.
multi-threaded search engines
sometimes referred to as meta search engines. These search engines allow the user to search multiple databases simultaneously, via a single interface. When you enter terms in a MTSE it forwards the search terms to STSEs, obtains results from each STSE and returns them to the user.
allow you to search for strings of specific characters. Quotations marks are an effective method for narrowing your search because the terms within the parentheses are treated as one unit.
Properties of the entities (Color, Employment Date, Name...)
specification of the maximum number of instances of one entity type that can be related to the number of instances of another entity type.
Persons, places, or things about which an organization wishes to save information
a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
An instance of entity 'A' can relate to one or more instances of 'B' while an instance of 'B' can relate to one or more instances of 'A'.
Most modelers do not place attributes on diagrams but rather keep attributes out of the data model and in the data dictionary
One to many
one instance of entity 'A' can relate to one or many instances of entity 'B', but an instance of 'B' can relate to only one instance of 'A'.
an instance of entity 'A' can relate to one and only one instance of entity 'B', and an instance of 'B' can relate to only one instance of 'A'.
Describes how entities relate to each other
Compare the multi dimensional nature of data warehouses (and data marts) with the two dimensional nature of databases
A relational database contains information in a series of two-dimensional tables. In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional, meaning it contains layers of columns and rows. For this reason, most data warehouses and data marts are multidimensional databases. A dimension is a particular attribute of information. Each layer in a data warehouse or data mart represents information according to an additional dimension
Identify the importance of ensuring the cleanliness of information throughout an organization
If an organization is using a data warehouse or data mart to allocate dollars across advertising strategies (such as in the case of Sega of America), low quality information will definitely have a negative impact on its ability to make the right decision.
Explain the relationship between business intelligence and a data warehouse
In modern businesses, increasing standards, automation, and technologies have led to vast amounts of available information. Data warehouse technologies have set up repositories to store this information. Improved ETL has increased the speedy collecting of information. Business intelligence has now become the art of sifting through large amounts of data, extracting information, and turning that information into actionable knowledge.
Define the systems organizations use to make decisions and gain competitive advantage
Transaction Processing Systems. Decision Support Systems. Executive Information Systems.
Describe the three quantitative models typically used by decision support systems
(1) sensitivity analysis, (2) what if analysis, and (3) goal seeking analysis.
Describe the relationship between digital dashboards and executive information systems
EIS systems, such as digital dashboards, allow executives to move beyond reporting to using information to directly impact business performance. Digital dashboards help executives react to information as it becomes available and make decisions, solve problems, and change strategies daily instead of monthly.
List and describe four types of artificial intelligence systems
(1) expert systems, (2) neural networks, (3) genetic algorithms, and (4) intelligent agents.
Describe three types of data mining analysis capabilities
Data-mining tools apply algorithms to information sets to uncover inherent trends and patterns in the information, which analysts use to develop new business strategies. Analysts use the output from data-mining tools to build models that, when exposed to new information sets, perform a variety of data analysis functions. The analysts provide business solutions by putting together the analytical techniques and the business problem at hand, which often reveals important new correlations, patterns, and trends in information.
is a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks. The primary purpose of a data warehouse is to aggregate information throughout an organization into a single repository in such a way that employees can make decisions and undertake business analysis activities. Therefore, while databases store the details of all transactions (for instance, the sale of a product) and events (hiring a new employee), data warehouses store that same information but in an aggregated form more suited to supporting decision making tasks. Aggregation, in this instance, can include totals, counts, averages, and the like. Because of this sort of aggregation, data warehouses support only analytical processing.
ELT (extraction, transformation, loading)
a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.
contains a subset of data warehouse information. Data marts have focused information subsets particular to the needs of a given business unit such as finance or production and operations.
Multi dimensional analysis
The information is multidimensional, meaning it contains layers of columns and rows. Most data warehouses and data marts are multidimensional databases. A dimension is a particular attribute of information. Each layer in a data warehouse or data mart represents information according to an additional dimension.
A cube is the common term for the representation of multidimensional information. Once a cube of information is created, users can begin to slice and dice the cube to drill down into the information.
the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information. Specialized software tools use sophisticated algorithms to parse, standardize, correct, match, and consolidate data warehouse information.
refers to applications and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze data and information to support decision- making efforts.
reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information.
a technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible. Cluster analysis is frequently used to segment customer information for customer relation- ship management systems to help organizations identify customers with similar behavioral traits, such as clusters of best customers or onetime customers. Cluster analysis also has the ability to uncover naturally occurring patterns in information
Decision support system (DSS)
models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision-making process. Three quantitative models are typically used by DSSs: (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) what-if analysis, and (3) goal-seeking analysis.
integrate information from multiple components and tailor the information to individual preferences. Digital dashboards commonly use indicators to help executives quickly identify the status of key information or critical success factors.
enables users to get details, and details of details, of information. Viewing monthly, weekly, daily, or even hourly information represents drill- down capability.
Executive information system (EIS)
a specialized DSS that supports senior- level executives within the organization. An EIS differs from a DSS because an EIS typically contains data from external sources as well as data from internal sources. Consolidation, drill-down, and slice-and-dice are a few of the capabilities offered in most EISs.
involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll- ups to complex groupings of interrelated information. Many organizations track financial information at a regional level and then consolidate the information at a single global level.
finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output. Instead of observing how changes in a variable affect other variables as in what-if analysis, goal-seeking analysis sets a target value (a goal) for a variable and then repeatedly changes other variables until the target value is achieved.
is the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model. Users change the value of one variable repeatedly and observe the resulting changes in other variables.
is the ability to look at information from different perspectives. One slice of information could display all product sales during a given promotion. Another slice could display a single product's sales for all promotions.
performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis. Data-mining tools offer knowledge workers a wide range of powerful statistical capabilities so they can quickly build a variety of statistical models, examine the models' assumptions and validity, and compare and contrast the various models to determine the best one for a particular business issue.
checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution. For example, "What will happen to the supply chain if a hurricane in South Carolina reduces holding inventory from 30 percent to 10 percent?" Users repeat this analysis until they understand all the effects of various situations.
CRM (customer relationship management)
CRM is a business philosophy based on the premise that those organizations that understand the needs of individual customers are best positioned to achieve sustainable competitive advantage in the future.
RFM (recency, frequency, monetary value)
How recently a customer purchased items (recency). How frequently a customer purchases items (frequency). How much a customer spends on each purchase (monetary value).
CRM reporting technologies help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
CRM analysis technologies help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.
CRM predicting technologies help organizations make predictions regarding customer behavior such as which customers are at risk of leaving.
Operational CRM supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
Analytical CRM supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers. The primary difference between operational CRM and analytical CRM is the direct interaction between the organization and its customers.
Personalization occurs when a website can know enough about a person's likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers that are more likely to appeal to that person.
CRM success factors
Understanding customer behavior and preferences, then realigning product and service offerings and related communications to make sure they are synchronized with customer needs and preferences
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
measures that are tied to business drivers
Efficiency Efficiency IT metrics measure the performance of the IT system itself including throughput, speed, and availability.
Efficiency IT metrics measure the performance of the IT system itself including throughput, speed, and availability.
Effectiveness IT metrics measure the impact IT has on business processes and activities including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increases
Benchmarking is a process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance.
Types of metrics (IT, supply chain, CRM, etc.)
A metric is nothing more than a standard measure to assess performance in a particular area. Metrics are at the heart of a good, customer-focused management system and any program directed at continuous improvement.
a management system, in addition to a measurement system, that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. When fully deployed, the balanced scorecard transforms strategic planning from an academic exercise into the nerve center of an enterprise.
Measurements that are easy to understand
Clearly defined measures so that they can be applied and evaluated consistently.
Two or more qualified observers should arrive at the same value for the measure
The metric should measure the property it is intended to measure
Measures should be insensitive to insignificant changes in the process or product.
Units of measure
Most appropriate unit of measure
How precise the count should be. Materiality refers to knowing when it becomes irrelevant to be more precise with your measurement because it will have a negligible impact on the meaning of the measure or the impact of the information on the decision.
Must have a representative sample to measure accurately
Buyer power is assessed by analyzing the ability of buyers to directly impact the price they are willing to pay for an item. Factors used to assess buyer power include number of customers, size of orders, differences between competitors, sensitivity of price, and availability of substitute products.
a product or service that an organization's customers place a greater value on than similar offerings from a competitor. Unfortunately, com- petitive advantages are typically temporary because competitors often seek ways to duplicate the competitive advantage.
a product or service feature that customers have come to expect from organizations in a particular industry and must be offered by an entering organization to compete and survive
occurs when an organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market with a competitive advantage.
reward customers based on the amount of business they do with a particular organization
Primary value activities
Primary value activities, shown at the bottom of the graph, acquire raw materials and manufacture, deliver, market, sell, and provide after-sales services.
Rivalry among existing competitors
when competition is fierce in a market and low when competition is more complacent. Although competition is always more intense in some industries than in others, the overall trend is toward increased competition in almost every industry
Supplier power is assessed by the sup- pliers' ability to directly impact the price they are charging for supplies (including materials, labor, and services). Factors used to assess supplier power include number of suppliers, size of suppliers, uniqueness of services, and availability of substitute products.
A supply chain consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in the procurement of a product or raw material. In a typical supply chain, an organization will probably be both a supplier (to customers) and a customer (of other supplier organizations
Support value activities
Support value activities, along the top of the graph, such as firm infrastructure, human resource management, technology development, and procurement, support the primary value activities.
Switching costs are costs that can make customers reluctant to switch to another product or service. A switching cost need not have an associated monetary cost.
Threat of new entrants
when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market and low when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market
Threat of substitute products or services
when there are many alternatives to a product or service and low when there are few alternatives from which to choose.
The value chain approach views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the product or service for each customer. To create a competitive advantage, the value chain must enable the organization to provide unique value to its customers.
a small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data so that the CPU does not have to retrieve this data from slower memory circuits such as RAM
Central processing unit (CPU)
the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together.
The equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another (e.g., modem).
Compact disk (CD)
an optical drive designed to read the data encoded on CD-ROMs and to transfer this data to a computer
Digital video disk (DVD)
a CD-ROM format capable of storing up to a maximum of 17 GB of data; enough for a full-length feature movie.
a special type of rewriteable read-only memory (ROM) that is compact and portable
roughly 1 billion bytes
the number of billions of CPU cycles per second
Guided transmission medium
Wire media are transmission material manufactured so that signals will be con- fined to a narrow path and will behave predictably. The three most commonly used types of guided media are: Twisted-pair wiring, Coaxial cable, Fiber-optic cable
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
Allows web browsers and servers to send and receive web pages.
Unguided transmission medium
various types of media used to carry the signal between computers (wireless)
a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism
a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials
Megabyte (MB or M or Meg)
roughly 1million bytes
the number of millions of CPU cycles per second, how CPU speed usually calculated
a secondary storage medium for computers on which infor- mation is stored at extremely high density in the form of tiny pits
The computer's main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), the cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU).
Random access memory (RAM)
the computer's primary working mem- ory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor's high-speed external data bus.
Read-only memory (ROM)
the portion of a computer's primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power
The equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage (e.g., diskette, hard drive, memory card, CD).
1 trillion bytes
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks. The key achievement of TCP/IP is its flexibility with respect to lower-level protocols. TCP/IP uses a special transmission method that maximizes data transfer and automatically adjusts to slower devices and other delays encountered on a network
Value‐added network (VAN)
a private network, provided by a third party, for exchanging information through a high-capacity connection.
Virtual private network (VPN)
a way to use the public telecommunication infrastructure (e.g., Internet) to provide secure access to an organization's network
Voice over IP (VoIP)
uses TCP/IP technology to transmit voice calls over long-distance telephone lines.
refers to RAM's complete loss of stored information if power is interrupted