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For the Vocab quiz

etruscans

An ancient people living in Italy and Corsica

latins

An ancient people living in the region of Latium, Italy, who believed that they descended from Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas

latium

region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people

republic

A form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote

patrician

In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class

plebeian

In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up most of the population

carthage

Phoenician city in modern-day Tunisia which grew to become a major power in the western Mediterranean.

tribune

In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights

consul

In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government

senate

In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats

dictator

In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time

legion

A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback

punic wars

: A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean

hannibal

Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.

civil war

A conflict between two political groups within the same country

Julius Caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

triumvirate

In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government

Augustus

First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180

Pompeii

Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79

good emperors of Rome

A time when Rome was ruled by five good emperors in a row- Nerva, Trajan, Hadria, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

bad emperors of Rome

Caligula, Nero, Domitian

Diaspora

The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine - especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman's destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in A.D. 170

diocletian

Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign

constantine

Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity

constantinople

Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome

inflation

A decline in the value of money, accompanied by the rise in prices of goods and services

mercenary

A soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army

Attila

Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century

Greco-Roman culture

An ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures

Virgil

Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied

Tacitus

Senator and historian of the Roman Empire, wrote the Annals and the Histories.

aqueduct

A pipeline or channel built to carry water to populated areas

justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

justinian code

The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534

Hagia Sofia

The cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian

patriarch

A principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity

icon

religious image used by eastern Christians

excommunication

The taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian church

cyrillic alphabet

An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius

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