Bio 141 Lab 4 review

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95 terms · Bio 141 Lab 4 review

Integumentary system

consists mainly of skin but also includes hair, nails, and skin glands.

protection, regulation of body temperature, excretion of wastes, healing wounds, D3 synthesis, and sense reception

skin functions

sebaceous and sudoriferous

types of glands in skin

sudoriferous glands

sweat glands

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

skin's three main sections

epidermis

outermost layer of epithelial tissue

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum (stratum basale)

the five layers of epidermis

dermis

thicker layer of connective tissue beneath the epidermis that contains blood vessels, nerves, etc.

hypodermis

subcutaneous layer of loose connective tissue beneath the dermis characterized by the presence of adipose tissue

Carotene and Melanin

two pigments which vary in quantity control the color of the skin

carotene

orange-yellow pigment

melanin

dark brown pigment produced by cells called melanocytes. Screen out excessive ultraviolet rays, to protect nucleus and the genetic material of the cell.

1st degree burn

less than 10% of body surface affected, epidermis changed but not destroyed; mild swelling, reddening, pain; injured cells peel off and skin heals without scarring, usually w/in two weeks.

2nd degree burn

less than 15% of body surface for an adult, 10% for a child; epidermis andpart of dermis destroyed. New skin may regenerate; red or mottled appearance, blisters, swelling, wet surface due to plasma loss. Greater pain than third-degree burn (which destroys sensitive nerve endings)

3rd degree burn

includes burns of face, eyes, hands, feet, genitals, and more than 20% of body surface. Prompt medical attention required; all skin layers destroyed, deep tissue destruction. Nerve endings in skin destroyed. Skin cannot be regenerated. Surgery and skin grafts necessary; white or charred appearance, severe loss of body fluids

Rule of Nines

used to estimate the percentage of surface area affected by burns

macule

a localized change in skin color; freckle

wheal

a localized elevation of the overlying epidermis which accumulates fluid in the papillary dermis; hives

papule

a solid elevated area containing epidermal and papilary dermal components; mosquito or other insect bite

nodule

large papule that may extend into the subcutaneous layer; cyst

vesicle

a blister is a papule with a fluid core; bulla; second-degree burn

pustule

a papule-sized lesion filled with pus; acne pimple

erosion

an ulcer may occur following the rupture of a vesicle or pustule. Eroded sites have lost part or all of the normal epidermis; decubitis ulcer

crust

an accumulation of dried sebum, blood, or interstitial fluid over the surface of the epidermis; seborrheic dermatitis, scabs, impetigo

scales

thin plates of cornified cells which form as a result of abnormal keratinization; psoriasis

fissure

a split in the integument that extends through the epidermis and into the dermis; athlete's foot

viral infections

chickenpox, measles, erythema infectiousum (Fifth's disease), Herpes simplex

bacterial infections

impetigo

fungal infections

ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch

parasitic infections

scabies, lice

allergies to

medications, food, environmental causes

abrasion

results from a scrape against a solid object

incision

linear cuts produced by sharp objects

laceration

a jagged, irregular tear in the surface produced by solid impact or by and irregular object

puncture

results when slender, pointed objects pierce the epithelium

avulsion

chunks of tissue are torn away by force

a blood clot is formed which stops external bleeding.

1st step in healing a wound

a scab forms from the dried blood clot

2nd step in healing a wound

phagocytic white blood cells remove damaged tissue and harmful microorganisms

3rd step in healing a wound

epidermal cells multiply under the scab

4th step in healing a wound

cells in the dermis called fibroblasts produce collagenous fibers and form a scar

5th step in healing a wound

dermatology

the medical study of the physiology and pathology of the skin

Rule of Nines

method of estimating extent of skin burns

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

scab

a blood clot that forms at the surface of a wound to the skin

contusion

a bruise causing bleeding in the dermis (black and blue marks)

urticaria

hives

carotene

yellow pigment

melanin

dark pigment produced by specialized skin cells called melanocytes

sebaceous

oil glands connected to hair follicles that function to lubricate and protect

sebum

oily secretion

sudoriferous

sweat glands (apocrine and merocrine)

apocrine

large sweat glands (armpits, genital area)

merocrine or eccrine

small sweat glands (palms, fingers, soles)

cerumen

ear wax

pacinian corpuscles

receptors for deep pressure

meissner's corpuscles

corpuscles of touch, sensitive touch receptors

skeletal system

made up of bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments; provides protection, support, and movement for the body.

red bone marrow

responsible for the production of blood cells

yellow bone marrow

stores lipids

bones

storage of calcium and phosphate

206

number of bones in the adult skeleton

axial skeleton

pertains to the bones of the body (head and thorax)

appendicular skeleton

refers to the extremities (arms and legs)

ligaments

attach bone to bone

tendons

attach bone to muscle

long bone, short bone, flat bone, irregular bone, sesamoid bone, sutural bone

major classification of bones

femur

example of long bone

carpal

example of short bone

skull bones

example of flat bone

spinal vertebrae

example of irregular bone

patella

example of sesamoid bone

between skull bones

example of sutural bone

epiphysis

the ends of the bone (head)

diaphysis

the long, hollow shaft of the bone

metphysis

the flared region where the epiphysis and diaphysis meet

compact bone

dense and relatively solid bone

spongy bone

forms an open network of struts and plates (contains red marrow)

process

a projection or bump

ramus

angle of bone

trochanter

very large, rough, rounded projection (present only in femur)

tuberosity

large (maller than trochanter, rough rounded projection- humerous

tubercle

small, rough, rounded projection

crest

prominent projection or ridge

line

narrow, low ridge

spine

pointed process

head

expanded, rounded surface at end of bone

condyle

large, convex projection that usually contacts another bone

trochlea

grooved surface shaped like a pulley

facet

small smooth, flat surface

fossa

shallow depression or concavity

foramen

natural opening on a bone surface for nerves and/or blood vessels

fissure

deep cleft between adjacent parts of bone

meatus

canal

sinus or antrum

hollow space within bone

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