Urine Output Pediatrics
Infants and toddlers > 2-3ml/kg/hr
Preschool&young >1-2 ml/kg/hr
School age&adolescent >0.5-1 ml/kg/hr
Maintenance Fluid Pediatrics
Up to 10 Kg 100ml/kg/24hr
>20 kg 1500ml+(20ml/kg/24hr)
% of Extracellular Space
40% in infants (More rapid fluid shifts, cn lose entire ECF in 2-3 days <3)
20% in adults
Body Surface Area
Children have a proportionally greater body surface area, higher insensible losses than adults.
Urine Acidity Ped's
Decreased ability to acidify urine in infants more difficulty compensating for acidosis.
Isonatremic (135-145 mEq/L)
Most common type of dehydration. Equal losses of Na+ and H20 caused by vomiting, diarrhea, insensible fluid loss and excess exercise.
Hyponatremic (<130 mEq/L)
Decreased Na+ due to dilutional effect of too much H20; caused by renal losses from diuretics, ingestion of too much water (over-diluted formula) or too much loss from gastric drainage.
Mild tachycardia, lose 5% of body weight, skin turgor slightly decreased, mucous membranes dry (mostly normal assessment findings)
10 % body weight loss, skin turgor decreased more, fontanel's depressed, mucous membranes very dry, cool extremities, pale skin, mod. tachycardia, periph pulses diminished, irritable and lethargic, mild oliguria.
15 % body weight loss, skin turgor severely decreased, fontanel's depressed, mucous membranes parched, cold extremities, mottled and gray skin, extreme tachycardia, reduced BP, no periph. pulses, unresponsive, marked oliguria/anuria.
Risk Factors for Dehydration
Aptic Fibrosis Prior Hx of Heart
Obesity Long exercise period
Mental Retardation Recent change of Env.