What is the role of pepsin in the stomach? What is the role of HCl in the stomach?
Describe the surface of the intestine and how it aids in nutrient digestion.
Made up of many folds called villi. These folds increase surface area to maximize absorption potential.
Name four substances secreted by the pancreas. How do they aid in digestion?
Enzymes: Amylase- digests fats
Trypsin- digests proteins
Lipase- digests carbohydrates
Buffers: Bicarbonate- raises pH to neutral levels
What is the purpose of bile salts? Where are they secreted from?
-Liver makes bile, a detergent, that emulsifies fats by breaking the fats into smaller droplets that can be formed into micelles and be absorbed through the small intestine.
-Bile salts are bile acids compounded with a cation, usually sodium.
How are sugars and proteins absorbed by the intestinal epithelial cells? How is this process different from the absorption of lipids?
-Sugars and proteins are absorbed by the help of amino acid transporters because sugars are polar and can't diffuse across epithelial cell membrane.
What is the main role of the large intestine?
-To remove water.
-Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body.
What is needed for a colon polyp to develop into a malignant cancer?
What changes in the small intestinal surface occurs during Celiac disease?
During Celiac disease the villi folds of the intestinal surface infiltrate together and then flatten out to form a smooth and flat surface.
What are the three main energy sources used by the body?
Carbs, lipids, and proteins.
Why are complex carbs absorbed more slowly than simple sugars?
Complex carbs are absorbed more slowly because they are harder to break down than simple sugars. Simple sugars are easily broken down therefore they get absorbed and used more quickly.
What are essential amino acids?
There are 8 essential amino acids. These amino acids are considered essential because the body cant produce these types of AAs. Instead, these AAs must be obtained through your diet.
What is the difference between vitamins and minerals?
-Vitamins are organic molecules that are required but cant be synthesized.
-Minerals are inorganic substances required for body function. They are obtained through diet.
What is the French Pradox? What chemical might be responsible? What is this chemical doing?
Paradox is that France has the most centenarians per million people of their population. Wine is possibly the chemical responsible for this phenomenon. Wine is increasing lifespans and the number of citizens over the age of 100 in France.
What is a Calorie?
A unit of energy measurement. Energy is measured in Kcal which is equal to 1000 calories.
What are the main roles of the cardiovascular system?
-Transport of nutrients
-remove waste from cells (removed in liver/kidneys)
-removal of CO2 (dumped in lungs)
-supplies hormones to tissues
Describe the basic organization of the heart. Include features like atria, ventricles, and valves.
Two atria, two ventricles, four sets of valves
Why is the heart multi-chambered?
Chambered heart prevents mixing of blood.
What is the difference between the pulmonary and systemic circuits?
What heart feature initiates a contraction? What additional heart feature allows the ventricles to contract at a slightly delayed time compared to the atria?
-SA node discharges electrical impulse that initiates contraction and acts as the cardiac pacemaker.
-AV node slows down electrical impulse causing the ventricles to contract AFTER atria.
What cellular structure allows heart muscle cells to beat in unison?
-Intercalated discs allows muscle cells to contract in unison. Ions involved in contraction spread directly between cells through these discs.
-Intercalated discs are specialized gap junctions.
What would vasodilators do to the diameter of a blood vessel? What about vasoconstrictors?
-vasodilators lower BP and would make the diameter of the blood vessel larger.
-vasoconstrictors raise BP and would make the diameter of the blood vessel smaller.
What is the main role of capillaries?
Exchange of gases/nutrients/waste
What is the hepatic portal system?
What is first pass metabolism?
How is the vasculature of the brain different than the vasculature elsewhere in the body?