Renal US: normal variances and congenital anomalies

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local bulge of the lateral border of the kidney; usally seen on the left kidney

dromedary hump

Common variant, usually produces a wedge shaped hyperechoic defect on the anterior aspect near the junction of the upper and mid third of the kidney

junctional parencymal defect

Double layer of renal cortex folded toward the center of the kidney producing a mass effect

Hypertrophied Column of Bertin

Excessive fatty infiltration of the renal pelvis; renal sinus is enlarged and echogenic

Renal Sinus lipomatosis

When the renal pelvis lies outside the renal sius; the pelvis ballons before it reaches the sinus

Extrarenal pelvis

Infolding of the reaml cortex; sharp clefts seen overlying columns of Bertin

Fetal Lobulation/ Lobation

Existing healthly nephrons enlarge allowing performance of more work; diffue large kidney

Compensatory Hypertrophy

Failure of the kidney to ascend

Ectopic Kidney

Both kidneys on the same side

Crossed Renal Ectopia

Fusion of the lower poles of the kidneys; sits anterior to the great vessles

Horseshoe Kidney

Most common congential anomaly of the urinary tract; Either 2 ureters and 2 orifices (complete) or ureters join and enter bladder through single orifice (incomplete)

Duplex Collecting Systems

Cystic dilatation of intramural portion of ureter; SONO: round cyst like structure within bladder

Ureterocoele

Extra Kidney

Supernumerary Kidneys

Pelvicaliectasis to level of UPJ, normal ureter caliper, ballooning of renal pelvis

UPJ Obstruction

Nonobstructive enlargment of calyces, usually unilater; SONO: enlarged clubbed calyces,

Congenital megacalyces

Results from functional ureteric obstruction causing fusiform dilation of distal ureter

Congenital Megaureter

Absence of lower abdominal and anterior bladder wall

Bladder Exstrophy

Urachus closes at bladder and umbilical ends remaining patent in between

Urachal Cyst

Urachus closes at bladder remaining patent at umbilicus

Urachal Sinus

Urachus closes umbilical and remaining patent at bladder

Urachal Diverticulum

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