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Which of the following structures is involved with the movement of organelles within a cell?

microtubles

are derived from the Golgi apparatus.

lysosomes

Some proteins that are on the surface of mammalian cells contain carbohydrates. These proteins are synthesized by _______ and the sugars added in the _______.

the rough endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus

Which of the following structures occupies the largest volume in a mature plant cell?

Vacuole

The extracellular matrix of animal cells

All of the above

Plant cells do not have lysosomes. Which of the following structures likely fulfills the function of lysosomes in plant cell?

Vacuole

Which of the following organelles were probably once independent prokaryote organisms?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

Plastids are

present in nearly all plant cells

Prokaryotes

are surrounded by a plasma membrane.

Which one of the following organelles is thought to have arisen from an endosymbiotic relationship with a prokaryote?

Mitochondria

The endomembrane system

includes the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum.

Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane of eukaryotes?

Adhering to other cells

Which of the following statements best describes what happens to the organelles of the pepper fruit cells as the fruit turns from green to red?

Chloroplasts become chromoplasts

Which of the following statements about the nucleus in animal cells is false?

The nucleus is the site of protein synthesis

moves organelles within cells

The cytoskeleton

Which of the following organelles is involved in energy conversions?

Chloroplasts

Which of the following proteins powers both the movement of cilia and vesicles within a cell?

Dynein

Cilia and eukaryotic flagella

must have a motor protein that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power movement.

Which one of the processes listed below is not carried out by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

protein synthesis

Nucleic acids are not found in which of the following structures?

Plant vacuoles

Osmosis is

the diffusion of water across membranes.

Membranes may

all of the above

What would happen if a suspension of red blood cells in an isotonic NaCl solution was suddenly diluted with pure water by a factor of ten?

The cells would swell and lyse (burst).

In facilitated diffusion,

specific integral membrane proteins mediate transport.

The _______ of animal cells resemble the _______ of plant cells.

gap junctions; plasmodesmata

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

results in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles

In animals, cell recognition

involves proteins in plasma membranes.

Which of the following is not a function of exocytosis?

Lysosome formation

How can water, a polar molecule, cross biological membranes rapidly?

Both b and d

In addition to the bilayer lipids and proteins, membranes may contain _______ in the form of _______ and _______.

carbohydrates; glycoproteins; glycolipids

Phospholipids spontaneously form bilayer structures, but oils form small droplets. Why do oils not form bilayers?

Oils do not have the polar head group that phospholipids have.

The specificity of ion channels for the ions they transport is

a result of the characteristics of the channel protein.

Which of the following molecules do you think would diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer fastest, assuming that there are no proteins associated with the bilayer. (Hint: keep in mind the nature of the interior of the bilayer).

NH(base)3

Facilitated diffusion

is carried out by proteins that exhibit specificity for the molecules they transport.

A comparison of the properties of the plasma membrane to those of the membrane of lysosomes would reveal that

the two membranes have different proteins and lipids.

The sodium-potassium pump (or Na+-K+ pump)

results in the formation of a membrane potential across the plasma membrane.

A voltage difference is maintained across the plasma membrane. This voltage difference

arises because the sodium-potassium pump pumps 2 K+ in and 3 Na+ out during one catalytic cycle.

The biochemical reactions of biological membranes are carried out by _______ that may be either in contact with the interior of the bilayer (_______ to the membrane) or arranged on either side of the bilayer (_______ to the membrane).

proteins; integral; peripheral

Secondary active transport resembles transport by ion channels in that

both types of transport can involve the movement of Na+ across the plasma membrane

Which of the following statements about membrane proteins is false?

Hydrophilic regions of integral membrane proteins are in contact with the interior of the bilayer.

A competitive inhibitor of the activity of an enzyme

binds to the active site of the enzyme

To be metabolized, glucose must be converted to glucose 6-phosphate. However, at equilibrium, a mixture of glucose and phosphate at concentrations that exist in cells would contain little glucose 6-phosphate. How do cells circumvent this problem?

ATP, not Pi, is used as the donor of the phosphoryl group, and, thus, the formation of glucose 6-phosphate is exergonic.

An allosteric enzyme

is related to the disorder or randomness of a system

Suppose the reaction A ↔ B has a large, negative ΔG. In what direction, how far, and how fast will the reaction proceed?

From A to B; at equilibrium mostly B would be present; insufficient information is given to predict the rate of the reaction

Entropy

is related to the disorder or randomness of a system

The binding of a substrate to an enzyme

may involve hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions

If ΔG for a reaction is positive, the reaction

is endergonic

A reaction that has a negative ΔG

spontanious

A competitive inhibitor of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

is usually structurally similar to the substrate

A prosthetic group of an enzyme

participates in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme

The synthesis of complex molecules is _______, whereas their degradation is _______. Synthesis occurs with _______ in entropy.

endergonic; exergonic; a decrease

Enzymes

may be subject to feedback inhibition

Which of the following effectors of enzyme activity is least likely to be of importance in cells?

Irreversible inhibitors

Which of the following parameters determines how far and in what direction a reaction will proceed?

ΔG

Why is the statement, "ATP produces energy for life," wrong?

It is a violation of the first law of thermodynamics

In a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme

the enzyme does not affect the equilibrium constant for the reaction

The rate of a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme that has a single polypeptide chain

may be increased or decreased by temperature

An enzyme could increase the rate of a reaction by

All of the above

Which of the following statements is (are) inconsistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics?

a and c

Which of the following statements about ATP is false?

The phosphate bond energy of ATP is used to power catabolic metabolism

The DNA of prokaryotic cells is found in the

nucleotide

An organelle found only in plant cells is the

chloroplast

The idea that Eukaryotic cells are derived from prokaryotic cells living together in a mutualistic relationship is the

Endosymbiotic theory

The ability of some materials to move through biological membranes more readily than others is called selective

permeability

If a cell placed within a solution shrinks, the solution is ____ relative to the cell

hypertonic

A protein that forms an ion channel through a membrane is most likely

an integrel protein

4. The electric signal for contraction passes rapidly from one muscle cell to the next by way of

gap junctions

5. Active transport is important because it can move molecules

c. That resist osmosis

1. Cells mostly use ATP as an immediate source of ____to drive reactions

energy

2. The second law of thermodynamics is that___is always increasing

disorder/enthropy

3. How does a competitive inhibitor inhibit binding of a substrate to an enzyme

b. It binds to the active site

4. Enzymes

a. Can de denatured

5. Which statement about enzymes is true

c. They don't change the value of (delta) G of the reaction

1. Oxidation and ___ occur together

reduction

2. Due to its ability to carry electrons and free energy, ____ is the most common electron carrier in cells

NAD+

3. In human muscle cells, the fermentation process produces

lactic acid

4. The proton-motive force is

b. The proton concentration gradient and electric charge difference

5. Most ATP produced in our bodies is made

c. Using chemiosmosis and ATP synthase

1. During the light reactions of photosynthesis the synthesis of_____ is coupled to the diffusion of protons.

ATP synthase

2. Oxygen (O2) exits plant leaves through openings called

Stoma

3. How do red and blue light differ from one another

c. Their wavelengths are different

4. The photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a absorbs

d. Orange-red and blue light

5. During cyclic photophosphorylation, the energy to produce ATP is provided by
(last question)

d. The redox reactions of the electron transport chain

The end products of glycolysis are

acetylCoA, ATP, and NADH

The electron transport chain of mitochondria

contains cytochromes and proteins containing flavins (FAD

In the complete oxidation of glucose, 6 CO2 molecules are formed per glucose oxidized. Choose from the list below the correct numbers of CO2 molecules released by glycolysis (gly), the citric acid cycle (CAC), and pyruvate oxidation (pyr).

gly 0; CAC 4; pyr 2

Acetyl CoA

is formed in the cytosol during the complete oxidation of glucose

What is the metabolic fate of pyruvate in anaerobic muscle

It is reduced to lactate

The conversion of malate to oxaloacetate in the citric acid cycle takes place with the conversion of NAD+ to NADH. In this reaction, NAD+ is

b, c

Which of the compounds listed below link(s) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to the mitochondrial electron transport chain?

a, c

Reagents, such as dinitrophenol, increase the permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane to protons. The addition of dinitrophenol to a suspension of animal cells should

inhibit mitochondrial ATP synthesis

The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi is an _______ reaction. In mitochondria, ATP synthesis is driven by the flow of _______ down the concentration and electrical gradient established by _______.

endergonic; protons; electron transport

Which of the statements below about the citric acid cycle is false?

The cycle releases less energy than glycolysis

The mitochondrial electron transport chain

oxidizes the intermediate electron carriers, NADH and FADH2

Most of the ATP made during the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is

made by the mitochondrial ATP synthase

Which one of the following reactions is not an oxidation-reduction reaction?

R-CH=CH-CH3 + H2O ↔ RCH2-CH(OH)-CH3

Glycolysis

is an oxidation-reduction process

Triglycerides are major energy storage molecules. Which statement about the complete oxidation of triglycerides to CO2 and water and the oxidation of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate is correct?

Only glucose oxidation uses the glycolytic pathway.

The mitochondrial ATP synthase

makes ATP at the expense of the proton gradient established by electron transport.

Cyanide inhibits the enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain that reduces O2 to water. Suppose that you add cyanide to a suspension of muscle cells from a rat. Which statement given below is the most accurate with respect to the effects of cyanide on glucose catabolism?

The citric acid cycle would be inhibited, but glycolysis would not. Lactic acid accumulates.

The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi by mitochondria

is linked to electron transport

A suspension of yeast supplied with glucose as its source of energy was transferred from an aerobic environment to an anaerobic one. What do you think would happen to the rate of glucose utilization and the rate of ethanol production after the transfer?

Both glucose usage and ethanol production would increase.

Fermentation

results in the formation of lactic acid or ethanol

Which of the following is not a characteristic of C4 plants?

The first product of photosynthesis in C4 plants is 3PG

In green plant photosynthesis, water is

oxidized to oxygen gas (O2) in the light

In C3 photosynthesis, NADPH is used for the

reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG)

Photorespiration

decreases the efficiency of photosynthesis in C3 plants

The _______ of photosynthesis is similar to the _______ of chlorophylls.

action spectrum; absorption spectrum

The concentration of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere has increased over the past 200 years. If this trend continues, as seems likely, what could happen to photosynthesis? Ignore global warming and assume that the content of oxygen in the atmosphere will not change.

The net yield C3 photosynthesis should increase; C4 photosynthesis should be unaffected.

In addition to driving the synthesis of ATP and the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH, light stimulates the Calvin cycle by _______ and _______.

increasing the pH of the stroma; reduction of some enzymes

Which statement given below best characterizes the properties of a photosystem?

A photosystem is a complex of pigments, proteins, and a reaction center chlorophyll

C4 plants have _______ rates of _______ than C3 plants because the ratio of the concentrations of CO2 to that of O2 is _______ in C4 plants.

lower; photorespiration; higher

If you were to grow a green plant in a lighted chamber in the presence of radioactive carbon dioxide for several days, which of the following types of compounds in the plant would be radioactive?

all the above

The immediate source of energy for ATP synthesis in chloroplasts is

the electrochemical proton gradient

Mesophyll cells of a leaf of a green plant

have metabolic pathways that are very similar to those in animal cells, except for photosynthesis

Which of the following statements about the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis is false?

Most of the chlorophyll in a plant participates in an oxidation/reduction reaction

Which of the following statements about the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis is not correct?

The light-independent reactions operate in the dark

The major product of photosynthesis that is exported from the leaves to the rest of the plant is

sucrose

The ultimate source of energy for ATP synthesis in chloroplasts is

light

Plants that carry out crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) differ from C4 plants in that

their stomates are open at night

Cyclic electron transport

is coupled to proton uptake into the thylakoid lumen

Reaction center chlorophylls

are oxidized when in the excited state

The products of noncyclic electron transport are

NADPH, O2, and ATP

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