Is made of some variety of cartilage tissue, which consists primarily of water.
Look like frosted glass when freshly exposed, provide support with flexibility and resilience.
Look very much like hyaline cartilages, but they contain more stretchy elastic fibers and so are better able to stand up to repeated bending.
Are highly compressible and have gret tensile strength.
Cartilage-forming cells int he surrounding perichondrium serete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue.
The lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within.
Which type of cartilage is most plentiful in the adult body?
Hyaline cartilage is the most plentiful in the adult body.
What two body structures contain flexible elastic cartilage?
The epiglottis and external ear cartilages are flexible elastic cartilage.
Cartilage grows by interstitial growth. What does this mean?
Interstitial growth is growth from within.
Forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, an drib cage.
Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
Are considerably longer than they are wide.
Are roughly cube shaped.
Are a special type of short bone that form in a tendon.
Are thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved.
Have complicated shapes that fit none of the preceding classes.
What are the components of the axial skeleton?
The components of the axial skeleton are the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage.
Contrast the general function of the axial skeleton to that of the appendicular skeleton.
The major function of the axial skeleton is to establish the long axis of the body and to protect structures that it encloses. The general function of the appendicular skeleton is to allow us mobility for propulsion and manipulation of our environment.
What bone class do the ribs and skull bones fall into?
The ribs and skull bones are flat bones.
What is the functional relationship between skeletal muscles and bones?
Skeletal muscles use bones as levers to cause movement of the body and its parts.
What two types of substances are stored in bone matrix?
Bone matrix stores minerals and growth factors.
What are two functions of a bone's marrow cavities?
Bone marrow cavities serve as sites for blood cell formation and fat storage.
Projections, depressions, and openings that serve as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves.
The dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye.
A honeycomb of trabeculae
Small needle-like or flat pieces found in spongy bone.
Shaft of long bones.
Yellow Marrow Cavity
When the medullary cavity contains fat.
Are the bone ends.
Between the diaphysis and epiphysis in adults.
A disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.
The external surface of the entire bone except the joint surfaces is covered by a glistening white, double-layered membrane.
Bone-forming cells, secrete bone matrix elements.
Primitive stem cells that give rise to osteoblasts.
How nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels enter the diaphysis.
Internal bone surfaces are covered with a delicate connective tissue membrane.
Name of spongy bone in flat bones.
Typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in the dipolë of flat bones.
Red Marrow Cavities
Cavities where red marrow is found.
Osteon or Haversian System
Structural unit of compact bone.
Another name for compact bone.
Central Canal or Haversian Canal
Runs through the core of each osteon, contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon's cells.
Perforating Canals or Volkmann's Canals
Lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canals and the medullary cavity.
Connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal.
Lies between intact osteons; incomplete lamellae.
Located just deep to the periosteum and just superficial to the endosteum, extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis and effectively resist twisting of the long bone.
The organic compound of the matrix.
Are crests, tubercles, and spines bony projections or concavities?
Crests, tubercles, and spines are bony projections.
How does the structure of compact bone differ from that of spongy bone when viewed with the naked eye?
Compact bone looks fairly solid and homogeneous whereas spongy bones have an open network of bone spicules.
What membrane lines the internal canals and covers the trabeculae of a bone?
Endosteum lines the internal canals and covers the trabeculae.
Which component of bone--organic or inorganic--makes it hard?
Bone's inorganic component (bone salts) makes it hard.
What name is given to a cell that has a ruffled border and acts to break down bone matrix?
The osteoclast fits this description.
Ossification or Osteogenesis
The process of bone formation.
When a bone is developed by intramembranous ossification, or develops from a fibrous membrane.
Cartilage Bone or Endochondral Bone
The resulting bone of endochondral ossification, or bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage.
Results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull and the clavicles.
Primary Ossification Center
The center of the hyaline cartilage shaft.
Which contains a nutrient artery and vein, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, red marrow elements, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.
Secondary Ossification Centers
Appear in one or both epiphyses shortly after birth, and the epiphyses gain bony tissue.
Bones don't begin as bones. What do they begin as?
Bones begin as fibrous membranes or hyaline cartilages.
When describing endochondral ossification, some say "bone chases cartilage." What does that mean?
The cartilage model grows, then breaks down and is replaced by bone.
Where is the pirmary ossification center located in a long bone? Where is (are) the secondary ossification center(s) located?
The primary ossification center in a long bone is in the center of the shaft. The secondary ossification centers are in the epiphyses (bone ends).
As a long bone grows in length, what is happening in the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal plate?
The chondrocytes are enlarging and their lacunae are breaking down and leaving holes in the cartilage matrix.
Bone deposit and bone resorption together.
Occurs wherever bone is injured or added bone strength is required.
Is accomplished by osteoclasts, giant multinucleate cells that rise from the same hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate into macrophages.
Hormonal controls; produced by the parathyroid glands.
Produced by parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
A mass of clotted blood.
Repair tissue mass.
Bony (hard) Callus
New bone trabeculae begins to appear in the fibrocartilaginous callus.
If osteoclasts in a long bone are more active than osteoblasts, what change in bone mass is likely?
If bone-destroying cells (osteoclasts) are more active than bone-forming cells (osteoblasts), bone mass will decrease.
Which stimulus--PTS (a hormone) or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton--is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels?
The hormonal stimulus maintains homeostatic blood calcium levels.
How does an open fracture differ from a closed fracture?
In an open fracture, the bone ends are exposed to the external environment. In a closed fracture, the bone ends do not penetrate the external boundary of the skin.
How do bone growth and bone remodeling differ?
Bone growth increases bone mass, as during childhood or when exceptional stress is placed on the bones. Bone remodeling follows bone growth to maintain the proper propertions of the bone considering stresses placed upon it.
Includes a number of disorders in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.
Is the analogous disease in children. Bowed legs and deformities of the pelvis, skull, and rib cage are common.
Refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption oupaces bone deposit.
Is characterized by excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption.
Which bone disorder is characterized by excessive deposit of weak, poorly mineralized bone?
Paget's disease is characterized by excessive deposit of weak, poorly mineralized bone.
What are three measures that may help to maintain healthy bone density?
Sufficient vitamine D, calcium, and weight-bearing exercise all help to maintain healthy bone density.
What name is given to "adult rickets"?
Adult rickets is called osteomalacia.