Short answer: What are the distinctions between ummah and iman?
Short answer: What are the five categories of shari'ah law that govern human actions?
Short answer: What are the four sources of Islamic jurisprudence?
Short answer: How did the crescent become the symbol of Islam?
Short answer: Why did the Muslim conquest of India not result in mass conversion?
Short answer: What is the difference between zakat alms and sadaqah alms?
Short answer: Why do Muslims participating in the hajj wear two pieces of white linen?
Short answer: What are the four essential features of every mosque?
Short answer: What are the three elements that are distinctive of Islamic art?
Short answer: Why was the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal important?
Essay: Explain, with examples, the five pillars of Islam.
Essay: Explain the significance and influence of the Wahhabi movement.
ESSAY: Explain the introduction of Islam to North America
From the Arabic khalifah (one who represents or acts on behalf of another). The caliph was the Phophets successor as the head of the Muslim community; the position became institutionalized in the form of the caliphate which lasted from 632 to 1924.
Remembering God's name (which the Arabic word that looks like a "W" in the picture). Chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while devotees dance in a circle.
The word Islam means
The prophet Muhammad was born in what city?
The community in which the prophet Muhammad was born was largely...
The 'night journey' refers to
the time that Muhammad traveled from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night and ascended to heaven. (From the Al Aqsa Mosque pictured above)
In Medina, Jews were given freedom and equality if they...
supported the government.
The term "ummah" means...
The term "ijtihad" refers to... (DO NOT CONFUSE WITH "JIHAD")
The personal reasoning of jurists.
The Sunni Muslims believe this, which Shi'a Muslims do not...
Abu Bakr became the successor to Muhammad
The term "kufr" means...
rejection of faith
A "rasul" is...
a prophet whose message is universally binding sacred law
The term Qur'an is derived from a root word meaning...
The word "hadith" means...
Early Islamic philosophy drew heavily on the philosophy of
The Shi'a Muslims believe this, which Sunni do not...
Ali bin Abi Talib became the successor to Muhammad
The term "fiqh" refers to
The mystic Rabi'a al-'Adawiyah of Basra was the first
to use the language of erotic love to express love for God
The first and most important of the Islamic religious sciences is...
Islamic theology holds that God's essence is...
For Shi'i Muslims, the Imam is
the one individual held to be the divinely mandated leader of the Muslim community
For Sunni Muslims, the Imam is
anyone who serves as the leader of prayer at the mosque
Ashura is the anniversary of
the death of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn
The shaykhs of Sufi orders are similar to the saints of the Catholic Church in that...
they are ascribed miracles or divine favors
The 'Sevener' Shi'is are also known as
Most Muslim contemporary revivalist movements have rejected
Western values and practices
The mystic Husayn bin Mansur al-Hallaj is known for
pursuing absolute union with God
The sama' is a distinctly Sufi practice in which devotees
listen to the hypnotic chanting of mystical poetry
Islam spread to China through
Early Muslim mystics were said to wear a garment of coarse wool over their bare skin in emulation of
Under the Abbasids in 762, the centre of Arab Islamic culture shifted from Syria to
The largest Muslim population in the world is found in
When Arab forces arrived on the Iberian Peninsula in 711, the local Jews saw them as...
Islam first spread to sub-Saharan Africa by
The Khoja community in East Africa is comprised of
Indian Shi'i Muslims
Under the Samanid dynasty, which of the following cultures flourished?
The Samanids were succeeded by
The Mongol conquest of Persia and Central Asia resulted in
a decline in culture and prosperity
In its early stages, Islam spread via
The Uighurs are
The Muslim rulers of India came from
The Islamization of Southeast Asia was particularly influenced by
The term shahadah refers to
the declaration that there is no god except God, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God
The day of the week designated for community prayer is
The festival of 'Id al-Fitr concludes
The hajj pilgrimage is understood to re-enact the experiences of
In 1969, Gaafar Mohamed el-Nimeiri made shari'ah the law in
The term masjid means
The term qiblah refers to
the direction of prayer
Arab nationalism was influenced by
The aim of the Society of Muslim Brothers was to establish
the total Islamization of society
"protected people": non-muslim religious minorities (specifically jews and Christians, as people of the Book) accorded toleration status in Islamic society.
A sufi Ascetic from the arabic word or "poor"; the corresponding Persian word is "Darvish"
The short opening surah of the Qur'an, recited at least 17 times everyday.
A ruling issued by a traditional religio-legal authority.
Jurisprudence, or the theoretical principles underpinning the specific regulations contained in the Shari'ah
The Body of texts reporting Muhammad;s words and example, taken by Muslims as a foundations for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature.
The annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Ritually acceptable; most often used in the context of the slaughter of animals for meat; also refers generally to muslim dietary regulations. (Its the Muslim version of Jewish "kosher" food laws).
"pious ones"; a group of pre-Islamic Arabs who shared the ethical monotheism of Jews and Christians.
"forbidden", used especially in reference to actions; similar in its connotations to "taboo".
A women's veil or head covering.
The prophets migrations from Mecca to Establish a community in Medina in 622CE. In dates, the abbreviation A.H. stands from "year of the Hijrah" (the starting point of the Islamic calendar.
The holiday celebrating the end o Ramadan fast; the festival traditionally begins following the sighting of the new moon.
The consensus of Religio-legal scholars; one o the two secondary principles used in Jurisprudence; some legal schools give it more weight than others.
Islamic epistemology -
What sources/means do you believe you should use to gain valid knowledge?
1) The Holy Qur'an
v. Cultivated Intuition
Islamic Ontology - a. What do you believe is ultimately real?
2. Ontology (reality)
1) God is real
2) 99 names - refer to God's attributes/qualities
b) Al-Haqq: The Real/ The Truth/ The Reality . . . Much more than a
verbal assertion or statement
c) Allah: Comprehensive name of God (all of the other names of God are
encompassed by this name)
d) Al-Rabb: Lord/Sustainer (from an Islamic perspective, God is
sustaining you and if it were not for God's sustenance, you would be
1) al-Khalq (created existence)
a) Created and sustained by God
2) Al-Khaliq (The Creator)
3) Signs of God
a) All existence consists of theophanies (manifestations of God) i) God is the ocean and at each moment there is a different
theophany/manifestation that appears in this world at each
iii. Eschatology (inquiry into the end)
a) Judged on the basis of intentions - actions are based on intentions
Islamic Anthropology - Who are we as humans? Who do we believe we are as human beings as a whole?
i. We are all abd - servants of God
ii. Fitra - the key to our being able to serve God is having a fitra, which is defined as a
1) On the one hand is characterized of being a mirror of all God's qualities
2) With the fall we become characterized by forgetfulness
3) We have the ability to choose
iii. Everyone is a Muslim generically
1) We are all born with a nature that is predisposed to surrender to God and that is what being a Muslim is . . One who is surrendered/surrendering to God
2) Muslim specifically
a) One who believes that Allah is the only Eternal being worthy of worshipping and that Muhammad was His final messenger
a) In lineage beginning with Adam (AS) bringing guidance revealed by God to them
b) Have a saintly dimension of closeness with God
4) Awliya - Friends of God . . . You are close to Allah and Allah has a special relationship with you
5) Member of the Ummah
a) All Muslims are considered to be members of this one body called the Ummah
6) Sahaba (Righteous Companions)
Islamic teleology - What do you believe is the purpose of life? Inquiry into the ultimate meaning/purpose of
life. . .
i. Worship Allah
ii. Know Allah
iii. Love Allah
iv. To be saved and be in paradise after the judgment at the end of time
iv. To be saved and be in paradise after the judgment at the end of time
Islamic methodology - What do you believe about the method used to achieve the purpose of life?
i. Follow the Shari'a (Islamic Jurisprudence)
1) 5 Pillars
2) Path that masses should follow
ii. Follow the Sunnah (follow the example of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi
iii. Tariqah (spiritual path) - a narrow path
1) The crux of the Tariqah is dhikr (remembrance of Allah - the grateful remembrance of Allah)
2) Only an elite can follow relatively speaking
3) Throughout most of the history of Sufism . . .the Sufi path has not only been
for the elite . . . there are activities that the masses can participate in
i) Mawlid . . .celebrate the birth of the Prophet
4) Strive to remember Allah at all times . . .even in class . . . Even while listening/sleeping to a lecture . . .taking notes. . .walking outside. . .etc. . .the continual remembrance of Allah
Personal reasoning applied to the development of legal opinions.
Shi'is who recognize twelve imams as legitimate heirs to the prophets Authority; the last, in occultation since 874, is expected to return some day as the Mahdi.
Shi;is who recognize only seven imams; named after the last of them, Isma'il, whose lineage continutes to the present in the Agha Khan.
the pedigree or chain of transmission of a hadith, with which the individual unit begins
Struggle in defense of the faith; some jihads are military, waged in response to threats to the community's security or welfare; others are spiritual, aged to improve moral conduct in society.
Spritis or demons (the singular is jinni)
rejecting belief; implies lack of gratitude for God's Grace.
The Shi'i twelth Imam, understood in his role as the "rightly guided one" who will emerge from hiding at some unspecified future date to restore righteousness and order to the world.
The prophets miraculous journey to heaven
The person who calls people to prayer
The direction of prayer, marked in mosques by a niche inside the wall nearest Mecca
The month throughout which muslims fast during daylight hours.
Alms given voluntarily in addition to the required Zakat.
The presided daily prayers, said five times during the day.
The muslim profession of faith in God as the only god, and in muhammad as God's prophet.
the specified regulations of Islamic law (jurisprudence or theoretical discussion of the law, is fiqh.
the arabic term for a senior master, especially in the context of Sufism
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority though imams in the lineage of 'Ali, the smaller of the two main divisions of Islam, accounting for about one-sixth of all muslims today.
The "life-example" of muhammad's words and deeds, based mainly on the Hadith literature, the primary source of guidance for muslims.
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority thought the caliphate, which lasted until the twentieth century; larger of the two main branches, account for 5/6 of all muslims today.
A chapter of the Qur'an; there are 114 in al, arranged mainly in decreasing order of length except for the first (the Fatihah).
commentary on the Qur'an.
following the ijtihad or legal opinion of a particular jurist.
The Muslim community
The prescribed welfare tithe; 2.5 percent of each muslims accumulated wealth, collected by central treasuries in earlier times but now donated to charities independently of state governments. (See also Sadaqah).